Infectious disease: Smallpox Vaccine: [Essay Example], 420 words GradesFixer
exit-popup-close

Haven't found the right essay?

Get an expert to write your essay!

exit-popup-print

Professional writers and researchers

exit-popup-quotes

Sources and citation are provided

exit-popup-clock

3 hour delivery

exit-popup-persone
close
This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by professional essay writers.

Infectious disease: Smallpox Vaccine

Print Download now

Pssst… we can write an original essay just for you.

Any subject. Any type of essay.

We’ll even meet a 3-hour deadline.

Get your price

121 writers online

blank-ico
Download PDF

Smallpox is a highly infectious disease with a mortality rate of 30% which is caused by a poxvirus known as variola. This is the most virulent member of the genus Orthopoxvirus. The origins of smallpox are unknown but evidence of infection was found in 3000 year old Egyptian mummies including that of the the Pharoah Ramses V dating back to 1157 BC.

There are two forms of the variola virus: variola major and variola minor. Variola major is the more common and lethal strain, producing more severe symptoms and accounting for approximately 30% of deaths while the milder form only accounts for less than 1% of deaths. In order to infect an individual, the virus must first attach itself to a host since viruses are only able to replicate inside the living cells of other organisms. This is normally in the mouth, trachea or lung mucosa and the virus enters the cell via endocytosis.

The cytoplasm of the host cell is the site of variola replication. Since the virus contains the necessary enzymes, DNA replication and transcription can occur immediately. During translation, the proteins which form the structure of the virion and proteins which bind to molecules of the immune system are made. By fusing with the host cell-surface membrane, the mature virion exits the host cell to infect others. In the process, it increases the chance of cell degradation since the fusion proteins acts as virulence factors which harm the host.

Due to excessive quantities of viral mRNA, it inhibits the transcription and translation of proteins within the host, ultimately resulting in cell death. The disease is transmitted from person to person in the form of virus-contaminated air droplets when infected people cough, talk or sneeze. In fatal cases, the disease can lead to further malignant diseases including intravascular coagulation or bleeding of the skin and intestinal tract. Smallpox was not only the first infectious disease affecting humans to be eradicated but was also the first disease for which a vaccine was created. The English physician, Edward Jenner is often regarded as the “father of modern immunology” following his discovery of a vaccine for smallpox.

In 1796, he noticed that milkmaids exposed to cowpox, a disease caused by a virus similar to variola that affects cows, did not contract smallpox. He inoculated an eight year old boy with a vaccine containing live cow pox and the boy did not get smallpox. Jenner’s work represented the first scientific attempt to control an infectious disease by the deliberate use of the newly developed “vaccinia” vaccine.

Remember: This is just a sample from a fellow student.

Your time is important. Let us write you an essay from scratch

100% plagiarism free

Sources and citations are provided

Cite this Essay

To export a reference to this article please select a referencing style below:

GradesFixer. (2019, January, 28) Infectious disease: Smallpox Vaccine. Retrived December 13, 2019, from https://gradesfixer.com/free-essay-examples/infectious-disease-smallpox-vaccine/
"Infectious disease: Smallpox Vaccine." GradesFixer, 28 Jan. 2019, https://gradesfixer.com/free-essay-examples/infectious-disease-smallpox-vaccine/. Accessed 13 December 2019.
GradesFixer. 2019. Infectious disease: Smallpox Vaccine., viewed 13 December 2019, <https://gradesfixer.com/free-essay-examples/infectious-disease-smallpox-vaccine/>
GradesFixer. Infectious disease: Smallpox Vaccine. [Internet]. January 2019. [Accessed December 13, 2019]. Available from: https://gradesfixer.com/free-essay-examples/infectious-disease-smallpox-vaccine/
close

Sorry, copying is not allowed on our website. If you’d like this or any other sample, we’ll happily email it to you.

By clicking “Send”, you agree to our Terms of service and Privacy statement. We will occasionally send you account related emails.

close

Thanks!

Your essay sample has been sent.

Want us to write one just for you? We can custom edit this essay into an original, 100% plagiarism free essay.

thanks-icon Order now
boy

Hi there!

Are you interested in getting a customized paper?

Check it out!
Having trouble finding the perfect essay? We’ve got you covered. Hire a writer

GradesFixer.com uses cookies. By continuing we’ll assume you board with our cookie policy.