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The figure 2.2 gives a descriptive vision of a solid rocket motor. It is designed to ensure the combustion under pressure of the propellant grain it comprises. The ensuing gases are expanded through the nozzle, whose function is to convert this pressure into supersonic exhaust. As a rule such a rocket motor has five major components.
The case: Made either from metal (high resistance steels) or from composite materials by filament winding (glass, kelvar, carbon), the case must be proficient of bearing the internal pressure ensuing from motor operation, approximately 3-25M pa.
Propellant grain: Two main configurations –freestanding grain and case-bonded grain-with various central port geometrics are used to fulfill the required performance objectives. Freestanding grains are contained in a cylindrical plastic cartridge (PVC, etc). They are secured inside the case by various support elements such as wedges, springs or grids.
Case bonded grains are obtained by casing the propellant, before polymerization has occurred, directly into a case already provided with thermal insulation.
Thermal insulation: The combustion temperature of propellant grains, ranging approximately 1500 to 3000k, requires the protection of the inside surface of the case.
The ignition system: The ignition system brings the necessary to the surface of the propellant to start burning. There are three stages:
Initiator: A pyrotechnic element designed to transform an ignition system such as shock. Electrical impulse or light into the steady burning of a pyrotechnic substance.
Booster charge: A charge, powder, pellets or propellant micro rocket that transmits flame between the primer and main grain.
Main charge: A charge, powder, pellets or propellant rocket that ignites the propellant grain. The nozzle: A nozzle may be defined as a passage of varying cross section, over which heat energy is transformed into kinetic energy. Its major function is to give thrust into aerospace vehicle. Nozzle plays a major role in providing the necessary thrust to the rocket. The gases expand through the nozzle, whose function is to convert this pressure into supersonic exhaust. The general shape of the nozzle called nozzle profile, includes three major parts
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