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Parenting Styles, Perfectionist Tendencies and Self Criticism

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Regardless of the long-held perspectives about the part that diverse child rearing styles play in the advancement of people’s perfectionist orientations, generally minimal exact research has really been directed to help these conflicts (Flett et al., 2002; Kenney-Benson & Pomerantz, 2005). Rice, Ashby, and Preusser (1996) analyzed the coefficient of relation between the between perfectionist orientations with perceptions of parenting behaviors (as opposed to parenting styles) among male and female undergraduates. It was the findings of Rice et al. thatnegative perfectionists were exposed to higher expectations, scintillating criticism, and no or less encouragement (i.e., authoritarian parenting characteristics) from their folks as compared to positive perfectionists. Similarly, it was reported by Flett, Hewitt, and Singer (1995) that there occurs a positive correlation between socially prescribed perfectionism (i.e., an unhealthy component of perfectionism: Hewitt & Flett, 1991) and both maternal authoritarianism (r = .34) and paternal authoritarianism (r = .26) this was in the case of male undergraduates.

Another study having the same population i-e undergraduate students was conducted by Speirs Neumeister (2004) and Kawamura et al. (2002) they also reported with similar facts regarding unhealthy components of perfectionism (i.e., aforementioned socially prescribed perfectionism, concern over mistakes, and doubts about actions) and retrospective review of authoritarian parenting during childhood. It was also mentioned by Speirs Neumeister that students with a background of authoritative/ supportive parenting developed greater tendencies to have elevated levels of self-proclaimed perfectionism.

Coupled together, the after effects of existing examinations that have inspected interfaces between perfectionist orientations and parenting styles appear to help guessed connects between authoritarian parenting and advancement towards undesirable compulsiveness (i.e., heightened concern over mistakes, doubts about actions, and socially prescribed perfectionism), and a lower level between authoritative parenting leading towards the inculcation of healthy or positive perfectionism (i.e., high personal standards).Regardless of these critical discoveries, there are constraints inside the present writing that impede the speculation of the discoveries to sports among adolescents. Lets keep the above mentioned predicament as an example, all of the previously mentioned studies had one thing in common they all were dine in reference and taking in account the undergraduates who provided information about their parents obviously based on retrospective parenting-style measures or interviews. To counter the previously mentioned problem (see Halverson, 1988), it would appear to be judicious to decide whether these connections amongst perfectionism and parenting styles really exist amid youth or puberty. Also, no examinations analyzing parenting style and perfectionism have been directed with pre-adult sports, so the degree to which joins exist between perfectionist orientations in youth sport and parenting styles are as yet obscure. This issue demands attention as the research uncovers the fact that perfectionism in sports is different form perfectionism in other fields or other academic achievements (see Dunn, Gotwals, & Causgrove Dunn, 2005).

The perception of parental pressure higher expectations are often found leading to negative outcomes among youth taking part in athletic competition such as burnout (Gould et al., 1996), it also takes the enjoyment from sport to a whole new low level (Brustad, 1988), further leading into anxiety before the competition (Scanlan & Lewthwaite, 1984). However in contrast, a positive influence of parents have also been shown on children mainly in sports (Fredricks & Eccles, 2004); parental support and encouragement coupled together with positive parental responses to the performances of children leads to higher intrinsic motivation (Babkes & Weiss, 1999) also majorly increasing the enjoyment factor in sports(Leff & Hoyle, 1995) especially among youth athletes.

Taking in account the influence of parenting styles on children across a variety of achievement settings (Darling & Steinberg, 1993), the sole purpose of the whole study was to unveil the fact that whether adolescent athletes’ perceptions of parenting styles, whether it being authoritarian or authoritative, causes a difference for function of the athletes’ perfectionist orientations in sport which can be either unhealthy or healthy perfectionism. We in light of the studies mentioned before propose the hypothesis: athletes with unhealthy perfectionist orientations would be inclined to report heightened perceptions of authoritarian parenting (i.e., high demanding, low responsiveness/supportiveness, and low autonomy-granting tendencies) whereas athletes with healthy perfectionist orientations would be inclined to report heightened perceptions of authoritative parenting (i.e., high demanding, high responsiveness/supportiveness, and high autonomy-granting tendencies: see Darling & Steinberg, 1993; Steinberg, 2001).

Parental psychology alludes to the show of a restrictively favoring state of mind towards kids and, all the more particularly, includes commitment in a large group of nosy parenting strategies to influence youngsters to think, carry on, or feel in parentally endorsed ways. Such meddlesome strategies incorporate blame acceptance, disgracing, and imparting nervousness (Barber, 1996). There is however increasing and clear evidence that the perception regarding parental psychological control is in relation to maladjustment also leading to some sort of psychopathology majorly in adolescents, including the much troublesome depressive symptoms (e.g., Barber, 1996), anxiety (e.g., Pettit, Laird, Dodge, Bates, & Criss, 2001), and low self-esteem or no self-evaluation (e.g., Soenens, Vansteenkiste, Luyten, Duriez, & Goossens, 2005).Soenens, Vansteenkiste, and Luyten (2010) highlighted the two domain-specific expressions of psychological control, that is, dependency-oriented psychological control (DPC) and achievement-oriented psychological control (APC) under the perception of perceived parental psychological. The former namely DPC includes and preaches the use of pressure to keep the children within reach proximity whether it be physical or emotional. Parents using psychological controlling tactics when the children distance themselves are the ones who score high on DPC. In contrast, APC only advises the use of pressure to elevate children to excel in their performances whether it is sports or any other form of result oriented study. Guardians high on APC take part in meddling strategies when their youngsters don’t set exclusive expectations for accomplishment and additionally neglect to accomplish those measures. Self-determination theory argues specifically in the case of controlling parenting, (SDT; Deci & Ryan, 2000) that this particular parenting style overlooks the eminent and universal need for autonomy. In this particular theory i-e: SDT, it deals with autonomy as one of the canons of three basic human needs, the other two canons being as follows: competence and relatedness (Deci & Ryan, 2000).

Deci and Ryan (2000, p. 246) enlighten the fact that these needs cannot be undermined and rendered them essential further reinforcing their importance as universal nutrients in scope of psychological growth and adjustment: “the three fundamental mental needs are all inclusive and must be fulfilled in all societies for individuals to be ideally solid”. SDT defines the very important need of autonomy which happens to be of crucial importance in the preface of parental control as an experience of volition. At the point when people’s requirement for self-rule is fulfilled, they encounter a feeling of choice in light of the fact that their activities are self-embraced and reflect profoundly held qualities and inclinations. Autonomy is appeared differently in relation to heteronomy, which alludes to the experience of being influenced to act, think, or feel specifically ways. There also arises a dissatisfaction of this need, for example using psychologically controlling practices, would represent a hazard for maladjustment. SDT however does claim a controversial stance over the need of satisfaction and need-supportive parenting, whereas the further endeavors regarding this topic through research shows an inclined demonstration regarding the positive relation of satisfaction of the three needs to individualistic and relatively more collectivistic societies (e.g., Chirkov & Ryan, 2001; Vansteenkiste, Lens, Soenens, & Luyckx, 2006).Such discoveries negate claims made inside relativity in culturally diverse viewpoints. This evident logical inconsistency can be clarified by contrasts amongst SDT and relativistic cross-cultural perspectives in the way autonomy is characterized. In SDT autonomy isn’t characterized as freedom, i.e.: opportunity from parental or societal controls, whereas it is described as volition also known as the experience of choice-fullness and self-support.

Furthermore, in SDT the inverse of autonomy isn’t reliance, commonly known as dependence on parental or societal controls, whereas it is heteronomy also known as the experience of weight and compulsion. It has been contended and exactly affirmed through empirical means that the thought of independence versus dependence, is majorly orthogonal to the notion of volition versus control (e.g., Ryan, 1995; Soenens et al., 2007; Vansteenkiste, Zhou, Lens, & Soenens, 2005). People can act independently either for volitional or controlled reasons. Also, individuals can depend on exhortation and fit in with others’ remedies, that is, show subordinate conduct, either for volitional or controlled reasons. However the role of culture also cannot be undermined as it differs in terms of their emphasis on interdependence combined with conformity against independence and self-reliance (e.g., Kagitçibasi, 1996), SDT predicts that the experience of autonomy, when characterized as volition, versus control is similarly critical crosswise over societies this claim is further strengthen by research (e.g., Chirkov & Ryan, 2001).From the point of view of SDT, parental psychological control is basically a need-frustrating and, specifically, an autonomy-defeating child rearing measurement since youngsters who see their parents as controlling have a likely feel that they need to comply to the plans of their parents (Soenens & Vansteenkiste, 2010)

Blatt, (2004, 2008) provides with substantial clinical and empirical (e.g., Beck, 1983; Blatt, Quinlan, Chevron et al., 1982; Fazaa & Page, 2003) evidence which clearly indicates that a personality dimension having a gauge of self-critical perfectionism plays a leading rolein role in suicide ideation and behavior (e.g., Campos, Besser, & Blatt, 2012; Yamaguchi, Koboayashi, Tachikawa et al., 2000). Upon further scratching of the surface it is revealed that several theoretical and empirical studies have been successful in developing a link having the coefficients of disrupted parental practices combined with insecure attachment (e.g., Titelman, Nilson, Estari et al., 2004; Titelman, Nilson, Svenson et al., 2011), and depression (e.g., Youssef, Plancherel, Laget et al., 2004) with suicidal thoughts. Clinical manifestations and psychopathology may come about owing to disturbed working models and or cognitive-affective schema driven from early turbulent parental relationships. In general, observational investigations regarding the evaluation of grown-ups’ impression over early caretaking relationships affirm the significance relevance of these disrupted early relationships for pathological functioning (Blatt & Homann, 1992; Parker, 1983, 1994; Russek & Schwartz, 1997).

Parents are an intense wellspring of input in forming their young kids’ conduct and feeling of self. It is inside these geneses of relationships that kids initially start to get a feeling of them as proficient, skillful, and cherished (Bohlin et al. 2000; Bowlby, 1988; Cassidy, 1998). Two common sources of parental feedback of parental input used to shape youthful youngsters’ conduct and confidence are commend (i.e., positive articulations intended to strengthen attractive practices in kids or discuss delight with the kid) and criticism(i.e., negative proclamations intended to stop or change kids’ unwanted conduct or discuss dismay with the kid).

Disagreement or disapproval may be represented through criticism of a certain behavior or attitude in the children. Criticism must be however used with care as it may lead to damage self- esteem, which may foster defiance and aggression leading to increase the likelihood of their developing behavioral problems (Barnett & Scaramella, 2013; Lorber & Egeland, 2011; Tung, Li, & Lee, 2012; Webster-Stratton & Hammond, 1998).

In this manner, as opposed to guardians’ desires, utilizing basic proclamations to shape kid conduct may really be counterproductive. In clinical investigations of youthful kids in psychological well-being treatment, guardians who coordinated more basic articulations at their youngsters were likewise more inclined to drop out of treatment (Fernandez & Eyberg, 2009).

Development of a negative cognitive style can be traced back to childhood abuse e (Gibb et al., 2004). Rose and Abramson (1992) argued the fact that childhood verbal abuse has a higher tendency as compared to other forms of maltreatment to having impart a negative cognitive style, negative self-schema is supplied by the abuser to the victim in this case the child (e.g., “you are worthless”). In order to test this claim, Gibb et al. (2003) unveiled backdated reports regarding the occurrence of childhood verbal abuse, keeping in mind that the abuse is only verbal and not physical or sexual maltreatment, were related to a negative cognitive style. Be that as it may, not all investigations have bolstered the one of a kind connection between verbal abuse and negative cognitive style. Gibb (2002) in order to prove this underwent a complete scrutiny of the literature on qualitative and quantitative grounds to examine the effects of different types of abuse on negative cognitive style (predominately attribution style). Apart a handful of studies under scrutiny, mostly involved small samples of undergraduate students and adult psychiatric patients; there were two studies that included children. Gibb (2002) came to a staggering conclusion of the matter that there was an association between verbal abuse and negative cognitive style same was the case with sexual abuse, although it was only identified amongst relatively older participants. He however failed to establish any direct relationship between the two factors namely physical abuse and negative cognitive style. As the author noted, and mentioned only a handful of studies in-order to examine a clear relationship between different types of childhood abuse and cognitive style, hence more research in this area is needed.

Self-criticisms developed to identify a negative subjective style, it also speaks to the negative assessment of the self and a tireless conviction that others share one’s vindictive view (Blatt, 1974). Researchers have characterized it under the borders of feelings such as of failure, worthlessness, inferiority and self-doubt (Blatt and Homann, 1992). It is also one of the beepers for depression (Bagby et al., 1992). Self-criticism is also directly proportional to anxiety disorders. Cox et al. (2004a,b,c) illuminate in a series of study that self-criticism is the root cause of disorders pertaining to internalizing spectrum which also including social phobia, PTSD, and depression.

Early experiences have been appeared to impact individual schemas about self, others and relational relationships, and a parental style portrayed by low care, exclusive expectations and incessant scrutinizes has been related with uneasiness, depressive side effects and negative self-schemas (Gibb, 2002; Rose & Abramson, 1992). It can be thus hypothesized: a peculiar worry about possible mistakes (CM) and the tendency to ruminate upon possible failures (B) could be derived by learned relational scripts, that lead a person to relate to him/herself have done during childhood (Baldwin, 1992, 1997; Bowlby, 1980). In turn, being vigilant about mistakes and going on to ruminate about the past can enhance the probability of being self-critical (ISC).

Parenting behaviors that display unnecessary limitation and dismissal were appeared to be related with the advancement of self-criticism. These findings further subjugate thetheoretical formulations of Blatt and his colleagues (Blatt, 1974; Blatt et al., 1979; Blatt & Zuroff, 1990) regarding the genesis of self-criticism and are congruent with the results of McCranie and Bass’s (1984) retrospective study. Essentially, parenting was identified with self-criticism notwithstanding when mother-detailed inconsistent contrasts among kids were considered. Moreover, we give confirm that these parenting measurements were particularly connected with the improvement of self-criticism seeing that they had no immediate effect on the advancement of forceful standoffish states of mind. Self-criticism can also be conceptualized as the consequence of faulty self-regulation

(Bandura, 1977). Bandura’s social learning theory proposes that children secure self-support principles by methods for observational learning. Henceforth, youngsters who meet with strict requests combined with dismissal from their folks at age 5 are probably going to start to assess and fortify themselves in a correspondingly strict and non-accepting way. The influence of sex-parent is however greater in light of development of self-criticism because similar models produce the most powerful observational learning effects (Bandura, 1977).

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