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Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome

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Female infertility is caused by problems with ovulation. Without ovulation, there are no eggs to be fertilized. Some signs that a woman is not ovulating normally include irregular or absent menstrual periods. Ovulation problems are often caused by polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS).

Causes in women

Infertility in women have a range of causes but there are a few factors that increase the risk:SMOKING: The ability to conceive starts to fall around the age of 32 years and Smoking significantly not only increases the risk of infertility but can also undermine the effects of fertility treatment. Smoking during pregnancy increases the chance of pregnancy loss. Passive smoking has also been linked to lower fertility.

  • Alcohol: Any amount of alcohol consumption can affect the chances of conceiving.
  • Overweight: This can increase the risk of infertility in women as well as men.
  • Eating disorders: If an eating disorder leads to serious weight loss, fertility problems may arise.DIET: A lack of iron, zinc, and vitamin B-12 can affect fertility. Women who are at risk, include those on a vegan diet, should ask the doctor about supplements.
  • Exercise: Both too much and too little exercise can lead to fertility problems.
  • Sexually transmitted infections (STIs): Chlamydia can damage the fallopian tubes in a woman and cause inflammation in a man’s scrotum. Some other STIs may also cause infertility. Exposure to some
  • Chemicals: Some pesticides, herbicides, metals, such as lead, and solvents have been linked to fertility problems in women. A mouse study has suggested that ingredients in some household detergents may reduce fertility.
  • Mental stress: This may affect female ovulation and can lead to reduced sexual activity.
  • Medical conditions: Some medical conditions can also affect fertility. Ovulation disorders appear to be the most common cause of infertility in women. Ovulation is the monthly release of an egg. The eggs may never be released or they may only be released in some cycles. Ovulation disorders can be due to Premature ovarian failure: The ovaries stop working before the age of 40 years. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): The ovaries function abnormally and ovulation may not occur.Hyperprolactinemia: If prolactin levels are high, and the woman is not pregnant or breastfeeding, it may affect ovulation and fertility.
  • Poor egg quality: Eggs that are damaged or develop genetic abnormalities cannot sustain a pregnancy. The older a woman is, the higher the risk.
  • Thyroid problems: An overactive or underactive thyroid gland can lead to a hormonal imbalance.Chronic conditions: These include AIDS or cancer. Problems in the uterus or fallopian tubes can prevent the egg from traveling from the ovary to the uterus, or womb. If the egg does not travel, it can be harder to conceive naturally. Causes include Surgery: Pelvic surgery can sometimes cause scarring or damage to the fallopian tubes. Cervical surgery can sometimes cause scarring or shortening of the cervix. The cervix is the neck of the uterus. Submucosal fibroids: Benign or non-cancerous tumors occur in the muscular wall of the uterus. They can interfere with implantation or block the fallopian tube, preventing sperm from fertilizing the egg. Large submucosal uterine fibroids may make the uterus cavity bigger, increasing the distance the sperm has to travel.
  • Endometriosis: Cells that normally occur within the lining of the uterus start growing elsewhere in the body.Previous sterilization treatment: In women who have chosen to have their fallopian tubes blocked, the process can be reversed, but the chances of becoming fertile again are not high.
  • Medications, treatments, and drugs: Some drugs can affect fertility in a woman. Non – steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs): Long-term use of aspirin, ibuprofen may make it harder to conceive. Chemotherapy: Some chemotherapy drugs can result in ovarian failure. In some cases, this may be permanent. Radiation therapy: If this is aimed near the reproductive organs, it can increase the risk of fertility problems.Illegal drugs: Some women who use marijuana or cocaine may have fertility problems. The cholesterol one study has found that high cholesterol levels may have an impact on fertility in women.
  • Treatments: Treatment will depend on many factors, including the age of the person who wishes to conceive, how long infertility has lasted, personal preferences, and their general state of health. Fertility drugs might be prescribed to regulate or induce ovulation. They include Clomifene (Clomid, Serophene): This encourages ovulation in those who ovulate either irregularly or not at all, because of PCOS or another disorder. It makes the pituitary gland release more follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH).
  • Metformin (Glucophage): If Clomifene is not effective, metformin may help women with PCOS, especially when linked to insulin resistance.Human menopausal gonadotropin, or hMG (Repronex): This contains both FSH and LH. Patients who do not ovulate because of a fault in the pituitary gland may receive this drug as an injection. Follicle-stimulating hormone (Gonal-F, Bravelle): This hormone is produced by the pituitary gland that controls estrogen production by the ovaries. It stimulates the ovaries to mature egg follicles.
  • Human chorionic gonadotropin (Ovidrel, Pregnyl): Used together with clomiphene, hMG, and FSH, this can stimulate the follicle to ovulate.Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (Gn-RH) analogs: These can help women who ovulate too early—before the lead follicle is mature—during HMG treatment. It delivers a constant supply of Gn-RH to the pituitary gland, which alters the production of the hormone, allowing the doctor to induce follicle growth with FSH.
  • Bromocriptine (Parlodel): This drug inhibits prolactin production. Prolactin stimulates milk production during breastfeeding. Outside pregnancy and lactation, women with high levels of prolactin may have irregular ovulation cycles and fertility problem.

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Polycystic ovarian syndrome. (2018, October 08). GradesFixer. Retrieved January 28, 2021, from https://gradesfixer.com/free-essay-examples/polycystic-ovarian-syndrome/
“Polycystic ovarian syndrome.” GradesFixer, 08 Oct. 2018, gradesfixer.com/free-essay-examples/polycystic-ovarian-syndrome/
Polycystic ovarian syndrome. [online]. Available at: <https://gradesfixer.com/free-essay-examples/polycystic-ovarian-syndrome/> [Accessed 28 Jan. 2021].
Polycystic ovarian syndrome [Internet]. GradesFixer. 2018 Oct 08 [cited 2021 Jan 28]. Available from: https://gradesfixer.com/free-essay-examples/polycystic-ovarian-syndrome/
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