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Process Data Sheet from Winflows Simulation

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The system has three major components, a PV array, a spiral wound membrane module, and a softener. The softener treats raw water from mineral ions that cause scaling problems. The pretreatment step consists of 4 stages: Softener, 5 Micron sediment filter, granular activated carbon filter (GAC) and 1 Micron sidemen filter. The system was fed with untreated brackish surface water with a salinity of 722.99 mg/L. In the simulation, four residential membrane modules “AK SERIES” Low Energy Brackish Water RO elements type (AK-2540FM) were utilized. Electricity needed by the system was partially supplied by the PV array which consists from 8 PV modules each 54 Wp. Since the RO unit needs a stable power supply, two batteries (12 V, 230 Ah) were connected in series to increase the voltage up to 24 V. The energy produced by the PV is transferred through the solar charge regulator to battery storage capable of storing enough energy for extra operation hours after sunset. The stored energy is transferred back to regulator unit for powering the loads. The rechargeable batteries used aimed mainly for storing energy during the day to make it available through nights to ensure continuous operation.

Sizing of the System

  1. Daily Energy Requirement
  2. The total daily energy requirements for the RO unit, softener unit and the auxiliaries (sensors, data acquisition system etc.) have been determined as follows:

  3. RO Load
  4. Two high pressure pumps (HPP):

    Volts = 24 VDC,

    Maximum current = 1.2 A

    Power of one HPP = 24 * 1.2 = 28.8 W

    Total Power = 28.8 * 2 = 57.6 W

    Hours of operation (average per day) = 8 h

    Total RO energy required/day = 57.6 * 8 = 460.8 Watts per hour

  5. Intake Pump
  6. Intake pump: Volts = 220 VAC, 50 Hz, Current = 0.54 A, Output power = 60 W

    Load including inverter losses (assuming the inverter losses (?inv) to be about 10% = 60/0.9 = 66.7 W

    Hours of operation = 8 h

    Total energy required/day = 66.7 * 8 = 533.3 Watts per hour

  7. Softener Feed Pump
  8. Softener pump: Volts = 230 VAC, 50 Hz, Current = 6.2A, Output power = 1.0 hp

    Power of Softener pump = 1 hp = 746 W

    Load including inverter losses = 746/0.9 = 828.9 W

    Hours of operation = 8 h

    Total energy required/day = 828.9 * 8 = 6631.2 Watts per hour

  9. Auxiliaries Load
  10. Data acquisition system including sensors: Volts = 10 VDC, Current = 100 – 500 mA.

    Maximum Power = 0.5 A * 10 V = 5 W

    Hours of operation = 24 h

    Total Auxiliaries energy required/day = 5 * 24 = 120 Watts per hour

    Solar charge regulator: Volts = 24 VDC, Current = 15.8 mA

    Maximum Power = 0.0158 A * 24 V = 0.38 W

    Hours of operation = 24 h

    Total energy required/day = 0.38 * 24 = 9.1 Watts per hour

    The daily energy required including the losses for inverters = 460.8 + 533.3 + 6631.2 + 120 + 9.1 = 7754.4 Watts per hour/day.

  11. PV Panels
  12. The theoretical daily energy requirement for the system is about 7.754 kWh/day, including the inverter losses.

    The battery losses (?b) is about 15% and the PV thermal losses (?th) is about 15% also. The average peak sunshine hour (PSSH) in Kampala is about 12 hr. The peak power of the PV module can be determined as follows:

    Peak power of the PV = EL / (PSSH*?TH* ?b) = 7.754 / (12*0.85*0.85) = 0.8943KWP

    The size of PV module must be such as to produce 0.8943 kW with operating voltage more than 24 V, in order to charge the batteries. Commercially available PV modules of polycrystalline silicon type of 54 Wp as peak power were selected (ISC = 3.31 A, VOC = 21.7 V, Im = 3.11 A, Vm = 17.4 V at STC). The system needs approximately 16 (894.3/54) PV modules in order to cover the daily energy requirements.

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Process data sheet from winflows simulation. (2019, January 03). GradesFixer. Retrieved December 2, 2021, from
“Process data sheet from winflows simulation.” GradesFixer, 03 Jan. 2019,
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