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The Proportional, Integral and Derivative types are arranged into different controller structure, which are also known as controller algorithms. They are:
In the controller software these different controller algorithms are given as configuration option by many controller manufacturers.
The interactive algorithm of PID is referred as real and used for direct field control. The mean of direct field control is that either both of its input or output is directly connected to the field or process equipment. It is designed in such a way that it can easily cope with any electrical noise induced in its circuit.
The non-interactive algorithm of PID is referred as ideal and is classical teaching method. The tuning rules of PID, Cohen-Coon and lambda were designed for this algorithm.
An ideal process variable is a noise-free, refined and optimized variable. They are a result of computer optimization, process modeling, statistical filtering and value prediction algorithms. These types of ideal process variables don’t come from field sensors. In these cases, it’s of great benefit that the actual formula of the Ideal PID algorithm is simple.
If the derivative term is removed by putting Td=0 then the Interactive and non-Interactive algorithm becomes same.
The controller gain of PID algorithm is not only multiplied with error in parallel controller algorithm as the interactive and derivative form are independent of controller gain, so it makes the use of parallel controller algorithm difficult.
The biggest difference between the controller algorithms of PID is that interactive and non-interactive algorithms have Controller gain (Kc) while the parallel algorithm has a true proportional gain (Kp). Controller gain has its effect on all three modes (Proportional, Integral and Derivative) of the series and ideal controller, while only proportional mode of the parallel controller is affected by Proportional gain.
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