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# Quantum Computing: an Idea at Its Basic Stage

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- Subject:
**Information Science and Technology**,**Science** - Category:
**Digital Devices**,**Technology & Engineering**,**Physics** - Essay Topic:
**Computer**,**Innovation**,**Quantum Mechanics** - Pages: 2
- Words: 1022
- Published: 17 Jun 2018
- Downloads: 132

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The idea behind quantum computing is to resolve problems in various domains of mathematics, physics, chemistry etc. They are mainly deployed to perform operations that are super complex in nature and are beyond the computing of conventional computers. They basically work with the technology of qubits in which the control signals are operated upon. The qubits are represented using Bloch sphere, in which any point denotes a combination of qubits. The functionality of qubits depends upon two states spin-up and spin-down. These states are governed by RF techniques and control signals. IBM has recently announced a quantum computer with the capability of 50 qubits (quantum bits). This breakthrough has made IBM iconic in the field of quantum computing, as this has been the largest quantum computing system ever physically possible.

Before mentioning the facts and figures of quantum computing, we should drill the need for quantum computing and what does it serve even when the conventional computing methods have made their impacts at profound scale. The conventional computing methodologies involve the use of transistors for storing data in binary forms i.e. 0’s and1’s and process this data. In 1960 ’s, Intel co-founder Gordon Moore perceived that the power of computers doubles roughly eighteen months and this is known as Moore’s Law. The computing problems require more storage as more information needs to be stored. Quantum computing is solely based upon a quantum theory which deals with the atoms and the smaller particles in them.

Quantum computers work on qubits which are represented as points on sphere i.e. 0and 1 are represented as north and south pole respectively, any point on the sphere is a reasonable qubit state which is a combination of 0 and 1 and algorithms such as

Shor’s algorithm and Grover’s algorithm have proved to be computing at an enormous speed with quantum computers but it is not necessarily true that quantum computers are superiors to the conventional computers.

Coupling Mechanism: In conventional computers bits propagate via bus which is a combination of wires and each wire carries one bit and are transferred between memory and processor and vice-versa. In quantum computers, qubits stay at the memory location itself and control signals are operated on them to implement logical operations which include at least two qubits simultaneously.

Interfacing bits with Chip: The qubits are fed to an anharmonic oscillator which is made by a capacitor and a non-linear inductor provided by Josephson’s junction formed of two pieces of aluminum. These junctions are placed in parallel. Qubits are integrated together and passed on two superconducting resonators made of niobium alloys.

These qubits use electron spin–up and spin –down states as 0 &1 in a magnetic field. There are two types of qubits electronic spin & superconducting which rely on control signals (analog) and use RF techniques. These two methods are approximately similar.

OPERATION ON SPIN QUBITS

Quantum dots have discrete energy levels for the two states up and down. Quantum dots are coupled to a pool having Ef as the Fermi- level, under applied voltage the dot levels are pushed above the Fermi levels and then brought down so that only the spin-up state can be filled and then again pushed fully down. A typical voltage pulse is in the 10mV range.

Single spin control: The bits can be flipped by applying a microwave excitation to the corresponding dot which rotates the spin. This operation corresponds to 180-degree rotation of the state in the sphere. The axis of rotation is determined by the phase of the microwave field. 2 Qubit Gate synchronization:

The gate voltage pulses flip the middle spin which is conditionally dependent on the state of left spin constituting of a two-qubit gate then the voltage pulse is removed.

Reading Output Criteria: A spin-up electron stays in the dot because it doesn’t pose the required energy to reach the vacant states in the pool whereas the spin-down electron moves out of the pool getting replaced by a spin-up electron. The current measurement in this area will reveal the spin state.

PROGRAMMING OF QUANTUM COMPUTERS

It is similar to conventional computers which require a programming language, interpreters, set of instructions and a defined architecture. The instructions deployed are then transferred via control signals and then operated on the qubits. To get an idea about the number of qubits only 50 qubits’ states are stored (which require memory larger than the largest supercomputers at present.

ERROR CORRECTION TECHNIQUES

One of the mainly faced errors while performing operations through quantum computers is decoherence i.e. qubit states change over time due to the interactions within environments to vanquish this error various techniques are applied in which the error probability per operation must be less than the tolerance threshold but it is an expensive procedure and thus, an important area of research.

SUBSEQUENT CHALLENGES

Qubits that are currently being integrated and operated on a chip are dependent upon heavy and costly equipment. These qubits require calibration at every niche of time thus calibrating millions of these needs major developments in this field. There is a need to increase the number of qubits. Initializing qubits to arbitrary and values reading the values stored in them easily.

At present millions of transistors are integrated with a microprocessor but most of them are connected to each other on the chip itself thus the number of pins in a package increase.In quantum computing, every qubit requires a control signal that is to operate upon the qubit, so multiplexing of qubits and control signal is essential but this found practical in real environments.

Various global companies such as IBM, INTEL, and MICROSOFT etc. have already established research programs in this arena. Through these collaborations, we foresee a large-scale quantum computer in the future but it is also doubtful that integration of such a huge technology will be commercially viable for the various domains and personal usage and the integration of a massive number of qubits will be able to solve appropriate problems in the future.

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