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Rainwater Harvesting

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(Steffen, Jensen et al. 2013)

The study presents an analysis of the projected performance of urban residential rainwater harvesting systems in the United States (U.S.). The objectives were to quantify for 23 cities in seven climatic regions and understand the water supply provided from rainwater harvested at a residential parcel and stormwater runoff reduction from a residential drainage catchment. Water-saving efficiency was determined using a water-balance approach applied at a daily time step for a range of rainwater cistern sizes. The results showed that performance was a function of cistern size and climatic pattern. A single rain barrel installed at a residential parcel was able to provide approximately 50% water-saving efficiency for the non-portable indoor water demand scenario in cities of the East Coast, Southeast, Midwest, and Pacific Northwest, but <30% water-saving efficiency in cities of the Mountain West, Southwest, and most of California. Stormwater management benefits were quantified using the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Storm Water Management Model. The results indicated that rainwater harvesting could reduce stormwater runoff volume up to 20% in semiarid regions, and less in regions receiving greater rainfall amounts for a long-term simulation. Overall, the results suggested that U.S. cities and individual residents could benefit from implementing rainwater harvesting as a stormwater control measure and as an altar- native source of water.

(Kahinda, Rockström et al. 2007)

The study analysed the agro-hydrological functions of Rainwater Harvesting and assesses its impacts on the crop yield gap as well as the Transpirational Water Productivity. The survey in six districts of the semi-arid Zimbabwe suggests that three parameters (water source, primary use and storage capacity) could help differentiate storage-type-Rainwater

Harvesting systems from “conventional dams”. The Agricultural Production Simulator Model (APSIM) was used to simulate seven different treatments (Control, Rainwater harvesting, Manure, Manure + Rainwater Harvesting, Inorganic Nitrogen and Inorganic Nitrogen + Rainwater Harvesting) for 30 years on alfisol deep sand, assuming no fertiliser carry over effect from season to season. The combined use of inorganic fertiliser and Rainwater Harvesting was the only treatment that closed the yield gap. Supplemental irrigation alone not only reduced the risks of complete crop failure (from 20% down to 7% on average) for all the treatments but also enhances Transpirational water productivity (from 1.75 kg m-3 up to 2.3 kg m-3 on average) by mitigating ISDS.

(Senkondo, Mdoe et al. 1998)

The paper analysed the socioeconomic factor influence the adoption of rainwater harvesting technologies in western pare lowland of Tanzania. Data for the study were collected from 70 smallholder farmers in kifaru and lambeni villages. These data were fitted in probit and logit models. The results of the profit were used to explain adoption of rainwater harvesting in western pare lowland because it produced better fits compared with the logic model. The results of probit model showed that farm size, number of family members working in the farm, experience in farming, and extend of knowledge in rainwater harvesting techniques were significant in explaining the intensity of adoption of rainwater harvesting techniques. Regarding farmers perceived technology characteristics, the result showed that farmers appreciation of rainwater harvesting as a factor contributing to increased crop yield was positively and significantly explaining the intensity of adoption of rainwater harvesting. This suggested that higher yield attained with the use of rainwater harvesting techniques would encourage adoption of the techniques. It was therefore recommended that efforts to promote the use of rainwater harvesting techniques could go together with the use of other recommended improved inputs bring higher returns to farmers.

(Mahmoud and Alazba 2015)

The study was focused on geographic information system (GIS) methodology based on a decision support system (DSS) that used remote-sensing data, filed survey, and GIS to delineate potential in situ rainwater harvesting areas. The GIS-based DSS implemented as well as evaluated the existing rainwater harvesting structures in the study area. The input into the DSS included a map of rainfall surplus, slope, potential runoff coefficient (PRC), land cover/use, and soil texture. The outputs were map showing potential sites for in situ water harvesting (IWH). The spatial distribution of the suitability map showed that 1.5 and 27.8 % of the study area had excellent and good suitability for IWH, relatively, while 45 % of the area had moderate suitability. Validation of the existing IWH structures was done during a field survey using collected data and the suitability map. The validation depended upon comparing rainwater harvesting/recharge dam’s locations in the generated suitability map and the location of the surveyed IWH structures using the proximity analysis tool of ArcGIS 10.1. From the proximity analysis result, all the exiting IWH structures categorised as successful (99 %) were within the good suitable areas.

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Rainwater Harvesting. (2019, February 27). GradesFixer. Retrieved October 25, 2020, from https://gradesfixer.com/free-essay-examples/rainwater-harvesting/
“Rainwater Harvesting.” GradesFixer, 27 Feb. 2019, gradesfixer.com/free-essay-examples/rainwater-harvesting/
Rainwater Harvesting. [online]. Available at: <https://gradesfixer.com/free-essay-examples/rainwater-harvesting/> [Accessed 25 Oct. 2020].
Rainwater Harvesting [Internet]. GradesFixer. 2019 Feb 27 [cited 2020 Oct 25]. Available from: https://gradesfixer.com/free-essay-examples/rainwater-harvesting/
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