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Research by Goldin-Meadow and Wagner (2005) investigates the effects gestures have on a child’s ability to learn, remember and retain information. The authors, Goldin-Meadow and Wagner broke this research down into three main sections,
These three sections show how and why different movements can aid a person in learning. In the first section, the authors mainly focused on the fact that every person associates different gestures with words and communications, even if they do not realize it. The authors explained the difference between gesture and speech-match and mismatch as well as talking about the significance of this particular phenomena.
The next section was about communication. The authors wrote “Children use their hands to reveal their cognitive state to their listeners who in turn, use their hands to provide instruction that promotes learning”. This quote summed up this section of communication. The authors claimed that through research they are able to determine those teachers who mimic and observe their student’s gestures become more well equipped to teach them in a more understandable way; therefore they promote positive gestures and unconsciously encourage their students to do the same.
Finally, the last section highlights the cognitive response to gestures, and how some gestures, no matter what correlation, intuitively helped people remember things when multitasking or trying to do two things at once.
In conclusion the author lays out a clear argument in favor of hand gestures and gesture alone; she supported the notion that using these gestures it is easier to retain and learn new information.
Stern, Voyer, Beauclair and Derome (1957) observed psychiatric patients during their clay workshop; The main goal of this research was to determine whether or not occupational therapy through ceramic modeling is effective in psychiatric patients. The study was done on 88 patients; At this time there was no particular diagnosis for each patient however each did represent the classic symptoms of someone admitted into a psychiatric ward. These symptoms included withdrawing from friends and families, having irrational or excessive fears, being confused or having the inability to concentrate, feeling down or constantly tired. All the patients in the facility were given the option of occupational therapy and it was at their discretion whether or not to go forward with it.
The study was led by a ceramics professor and a registered nurse. Patients were observed by their basic interactions with the clay and how they responded to the basic skills shown to them. It was from an observational standpoint, demonstrating the different techniques and attitudes displayed towards the materials and the process in general. Their progress with other actions in response to the therapy as well. After observing the patients and their reactions to the treatment the researchers found that the occupational aspect of this type of therapy resulted in therapeutic benefits along with evolved craft and emotional responses to the outcomes and process oriented work, in relation to the waiting and instability of product outcomes.
Sholt and Gavron (2006) explored the idea that ceramics has a tactile function that no other art form releases within the human psyche. The researchers first review the possible issues and historical ties of clay and working with clay. The authors asserted they coined the term “clay-works” which means the use and formation of clay or clay pieces. They then go on to explain and investigate of three different therapeutic effects that clay-works had on people. These three are identified as “(a) procedural expressions through the experience of touch, movement, and the three-dimensional aspect of clay-work, (b) construction and deconstruction processes through clay- work, and (c) the regression process”. Construction and Deconstruction is all about recognizing clay as a versatile product, leaving an imprint of touch and being able to be reused and recycled again and again. Finally, Regression. This section was subdivided and mentioned three different definitions of regression. These three being, “Temporal Regression, Regression as risking decomposition, Topographical and structural regression”.
In conclusion the authors found after researching 35 pieces of literature they narrowed down 6 main therapeutic effects clay has on people. These are
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