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Similarly, Schools with high poverty enrollments, high minority enrollments, and schools that are in urban areas have less access to qualified teachers then low poverty schools. For example, teachers in high-poverty schools are less likely to have graduate degrees than are teachers in low-poverty and teachers in suburban white schools are likely to have full certificates than those in urban poor schools. About one quarter of all secondary school English teachers have neither a major nor a minor in English or related subjects, such as literature, communications, speech, journalism, English education, or reading education. In science, slightly lower levels—about one fifth of all public secondary school teachers—do not have at least a minor in one of the sciences or in science education.
Finally, about a fifth of social studies teachers are without at least a minor in any of the social sciences, in public affairs, in social studies education, or in history”. (Richard Ingersoll, out-of-field Teaching 2002) Heather G. Peske and Kati Haycock shows that Students in high-poverty and high- minority schools also are shortchanged when it comes to getting teachers with a strong background in the subjects they are teaching. Classes in high-poverty and high- minority secondary schools are more likely to be taught by “out-of-field teachers”. (Teacher Inequality, 2006) Also, many teachers at both the elementary and the secondary school levels holds a bachelor’s degree and a regular teaching certificate but are assigned to teach classes in fields that do not match their educational background.
According to an exploratory analysis by Richard Ingersoll, “at the elementary school level the data show that 12 percent of those who teach regular pre-elementary or general elementary classes do not have an undergraduate or graduate major or minor in the fields of pre-elementary education, early childhood education, or elementary education and on the secondary level, “about a third of all public secondary school math teachers have neither a major nor a minor in math, math education, or related disciplines, such as engineering or physics.
Also a study by Poverty effects the ability of impoverished schools to match qualified teaches with their chosen field of study. While most teachers hold basic qualifications to teach a certain field, they are often assigned to perform their duties outside of their field. For example, mathematics classes in high-poverty high schools are twice as likely to be taught by a teacher with a credential other than mathematics as are mathematics classes at low-poverty high schools. Similarly, for science classes at high-poverty high schools, teachers are three times as likely to be credentialed in areas other than science as those who teach science at low-poverty high schools (Wirt et al., 2004).4 (Cynthia Hudley,2013)
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