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The Effectiveness of Filtration in Reducing Water Hardness

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Introduction

Water is one of the essential components for living organism. We all are exposed to water, but rarely anyone wonders what might be the contents of the water that we use in our daily lives. A reason is that we trust the water we consume every day because every year tests are performed on the water to determine if the water is safe for drinking and other necessities. One of the measures that is not included in reports is Water Hardness as “it is not a serious threat to health. However, high mineral content can cause high levels of accumulation in water pipes and pumps, and lack of certain minerals could allow for corrosion of the pipes”. In the experiment we conducted, we used different sources of water from around the USF campus and tested the pH, conductivity, and water hardness. pH measures the alkalinity of water, conductivity analysis tell us the capacity of water to conduct electrical current, and hardness tells us the number of dissolved metal ions in water. By implementing all of these tests, we will be able to assume if the various sources of water collected are safe or not.

Hypothesis/ Objective

Week 1: The objective during the first week of the experiment included standardizing a solution of EDTA from known concentrations of calcium.

Week 2: The objective during the second week of the experiment was to analyze the water hardness of the water samples that the students collected from around USF. Then the students were to filter them through a filtration system and calculate the concentration of calcium ions after filtration.

Hypothesis: It was hypothesizes that after filtering the samples through the filtration system that it would reduce the level of calcium ions, therefore reducing water hardness.

Methods

The first step of this project involved the production of a 100mL 0/1 M EDTA solution. To do this, 3.72 grams of disodium EDTA was abstracted from the fume hood and weighed upon the digital scale. Once amply considered, the EDTA was placed in a beaker containing 100 mL of deionized dihydrogen monoxide. The solution was commixed until the EDTA was adequately dissolved. Then, 50 mL of each of the three dihydrogen monoxide samples were placed into beakers after which the pHs of the dihydrogen monoxide samples were quantified with a pH and conductivity meter. A volumetric flask was acclimated to quantify 50mL of the dihydrogen monoxide samples so as to ascertain precision. After these results were recorded, a glass was filled with 50 mL of ammonium buffer. Then, several drops of ammonium buffer were titrated into each of the three dihydrogen monoxide samples. Then, the pH was monitored to ascertain the pH was neither below nor an extravagant amount of above a pH value of 10. The ratio of 1/10 ammonium buffer to the volume was habituated to secure a pH value of 10 for the dihydrogen monoxide samples. Once the dihydrogen monoxide samples were within an approximate pH value of 10, a Calmagite bespeaker was inserted into the dihydrogen monoxide sample solutions under the fume hood. Next, 50 mL of EDTA solution was inserted into the burette. The dihydrogen monoxide samples were then titrated until the equipollence point was reached. The amount of mL required to reach the parity point was then recorded in the lab manual, and the titration was reiterated for each of the three dihydrogen monoxide samples.

The first step of this project involved the synthesis of a 100 mL 0.1 M EDTA solution. 100 mL of deionized dihydrogen monoxide was quantified and then placed in a beaker. Then, 3.72 grams of disodium EDTA was abstracted from the fume hood and weighed upon the digital scale. Once adequately considered, the EDTA was placed in a beaker containing 100 mL of deionized dihydrogen monoxide. The solution was then commixed until the EDTA was adequately dissolved. Next, approximately 200 mL of calcium 1 solution was inserted into a beaker. Next, three 20 mL samples of calcium 1 were quantified in a cylinder and then placed into respective glasses. Once these values were recorded, the filtration system for the experiment was assembled. First, the commixed ion resin utilized for the analysis was inserted into the filtration apparatus to its concrete volume. Then, the filtration apparatus was affixed to the fortification stand in a manner so that it was parallel with the table. Next, one 20 mL sample of the calcium 1 solution was inserted into the filtration apparatus and was sanctioned to filter for one minute. Once the time constraint was reached, the calcium 1 solution was then pumped out of the contrivance, stored in a beaker, and set aside for future use. Then, one 20 mL sample of the calcium 1 solution was inserted into the filtration apparatus and was sanctioned to filter for two minutes. 20 mL sample of the calcium 1 solution was inserted into the filtration apparatus and was sanctioned to filter for four minutes. Once all of the samples were set aside, the pH of the three solutions was quantified. If the solution had a pH below 10, a minuscule quantity of ammonium buffer was pipetted into the solution to raise the pH to 10. Once the pH values of the solutions were evaluated, 7 drops of bespeaker were inserted into the solutions. As this was performed, the burette was assembled where it was filled with 50 mL of EDTA solution. Once accumulated, the first calcium solution sample that was filtered for one minute was transferred to an Erlenmeyer flask. Then, the sample was titrated and the results recorded. These steps were reiterated for the remaining 2 samples of calcium 1 that were filtered through the commixed ion resin. Once the solutions of each resin were titrated and their results recorded, an unfiltered sample of calcium 1 solution was titrated with EDTA.

Safety

Opportune safety was observed at all times for the duration of the experiment. While in the lab, the lab coat, goggles, and safety gloves were worn at all times in the event of physical contact with the chemicals. In this experiment, several chemicals with potentially inimical properties were utilized. Ammonium hydroxide was utilized as a buffer in this experiment; however, it can be deleterious if contact is made with an unprotected area of the body. Withal, spills involving ammonium hydroxide may emit deleterious vapors and areas affected by spills must be evacuated for the duration of the experiment. Chemicals such as EDTA, ammonium hydroxide, and Calmigate should be handled punctiliously. Similarly, glassware should be handled with care as a chipping or break of glassware may cause injury.

Discussion

In this experiment, different tests were conducted on water to determine if it is safe or not. Based on all the calculations, all the water that was collected was safe for consumption. Many of the errors could have been random human error such as titration of the solutions too much or not washing of the glassware properly before use.

Conclusion

The objective of the experiment was to test different samples of water in the area for water hardness, pH, and conductivity. For drinking water to be safe it must have a pH that falls between 6 and 8.5. All in all, it can be concluded that water sources around USF campus are safe for consuming despite of the high water hardness, and it was found that filtration was effective in reducing water hardness.

Research Connection

The research conducted by Dr. Malik’s research group “emphasis on advanced technology for high-performance micro separation columns” shares similarities with the procedures used in this lab. Dr. Malik’s research group uses “analytical chemistry with powerful separation tools for high resolution chromatographic and electrophoretic analysis…” Chromatographic is a technique used to separate mixtures, thereby allowing them to be purified. In our Chemistry lab we used filtration to purify the water samples which is similar to the chromatographic technique Dr. Malik used since his was used for purification purposes.

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The effectiveness of filtration in reducing water hardness. (2019, March 27). GradesFixer. Retrieved October 24, 2020, from https://gradesfixer.com/free-essay-examples/the-effectiveness-of-filtration-in-reducing-water-hardness/
“The effectiveness of filtration in reducing water hardness.” GradesFixer, 27 Mar. 2019, gradesfixer.com/free-essay-examples/the-effectiveness-of-filtration-in-reducing-water-hardness/
The effectiveness of filtration in reducing water hardness. [online]. Available at: <https://gradesfixer.com/free-essay-examples/the-effectiveness-of-filtration-in-reducing-water-hardness/> [Accessed 24 Oct. 2020].
The effectiveness of filtration in reducing water hardness [Internet]. GradesFixer. 2019 Mar 27 [cited 2020 Oct 24]. Available from: https://gradesfixer.com/free-essay-examples/the-effectiveness-of-filtration-in-reducing-water-hardness/
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