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Islam is a monotheistic religion originating with the teachings of Muhammad. The Muslim, reality begins with and centers around God (“Allah” in Arabic). Islam is the second largest religion in the world. There are over 1 billion Muslims around the world, which makes 2.7 of the population Muslims (Islam at a glance, 2009). The word Islam means “submission”, or the total surrender of oneself to God. Art is the mirror of a culture and its worldview. It is believe that Islam was revealed over 1400 years ago (Islam at a glance, 2009). Islam was revealed in Mecca. Prophet Muhammad got the message in Hira by archangel Gabriel who thought Prophet Muhammad how to read. Muslims believed that Allah sent a number of prophets to mankind to teach them how to live according to Allah law. According to the Quran, Allah sent Jesus, Moses and Abraham to the people to teach them how to live. Muslims believed by that Jesus, Moses, and Abraham respected as prophets of Allah. According to Quran, Prophet Muhammad was the final prophet. Muslims fallow the law of Quran. Thus, Muslims improved the calligraphy. The Sunnah is the practical example of Prophet Muhammad. From Sunnah Muslims have learned how prophet Muhammad lived. The Islamic faiths are the declaration of faith, praying five times a day, giving money to charity, a pilgrimage to Mecca (atleast once), and fasting Ramadan which is thirty to thirty-one day every year. From the art of Islam we can contemplate a lot in the prosperity of Islam. Islamic art is a diverse range of Muslims activities. Indeed, the products of those activities are uncountable since myriad numbers of Islamic art disappear by the time. Islamic art reflect Islam cultural values and the people who lived in Muslim country. Muslims focused on three types of art, which are calligraphy, architecture, and rugs and carpets. Ant these are important art in Islam history.
Calligraphy for Muslims was essential to write and rewrite the Quran. In other world, Muslims enhanced their skills of writing because the Arabic script was the means of transmission of the Islamic. Calligraphy can be found on coins, tiles and metalwork, and most painted miniatures, and buildings. Coin represents a defining point in Islamic history. Since Islamic against images, the images in coins were replaced by texts from the Quran. An example of Islamic coins is Gold coin of Abd al-Malik. Abd Al-malik was both the religious and political leader of the early Islamic Empire. (Gold coin of Abd al-Malik) There are many style of calligraphy in Islam. Some examples of calligraphy are Kufic styles, and Naskh styles. Kufic styles refer to the city of Kufa, which is located in southern Iraq. Kufic style was used almost exclusively among early scripts used for titles of manuscripts or in architectural inscriptions. Kufa style difficult to kind of calligraphy thus, it is not common to see people using it. The letters in Kufic style must be drawn in with a special kind of pen. It Developed in the 3rd or 4th century A.D. and used until almost the end of the 13th century (Kvernen). The writers who wrote in Kufic were successful in developing a style the Kufic style is unique. Naskh style is more easy to write and more simple. Omar Baba said “Naskh means copying and it also thought to be a hybrid the word “ta’liq” was developed in the 10th century, and refined into a fine art form in Turkey in the 16th century” (Baba). Naskh is most commonly use in Quean since it is easy to understand and read. We can identify Naskh style by its small script whose lines are thin and letter shapes are round. Naskh developed in 15th century Iran and perfected in the 16th century (Kvernen, Nasta‘liq). The letters in Naskh style are shapes and very thick. To clarify, it is very different than Kufic styles. It is commonly seen Naskh style in Persian poetry, and albums of calligraphic specimens (Kvernen, Nasta‘liq). Furthermore, Naskh is used in Persia and India and Pakistan for literary and non-Koranic works (Kvernen, Nasta‘liq). Therefore, India and Pakistan are Geography closed to Turkey where the Naskh style came from.
From the foundation of Islam until the present day Islamic architecture still has the unique style. Islamic architecture includes a verity range of both secular and religious styles from. The major Islamic architecture types are Mosques, Tombs, Palaces and Forts. One of the famous Mosques is Masjid al-Haram (“The Holy Mosque”; also known as al-Haram Mosque, Haram al-Sharif, Masjid al-Sharif and the Haram). Masjid al-Haram is located in the city of Mecca, Saudi Arabia. Masjid al-Haram covers an area of 356,800 square meters. And it accommodates more than 820,000 people during the Hajj. Hajj means pilgrimage to Mecca that takes place in the last moth of the year. The haram was built in the 7th century and has been modified, rebuilt, and expanded by the time (Hayes, 2009). The Haram has enhanced, rebuilt, and expanded more than eight times. In 634 to 644, enhanced by Caliph Omar Ibn Khatab. In 692, expanded by Caliph Abdul Malik bin, In 777, Abbasid Caliph al-Mahdi. In 1399, Mamluk Sultan Nasir Faraj bin Barquq. In 1571, modified by Ottoman Sultan Selim II. Between 1955 and 1973, rebuilt by King Abdul-Aziz. In 1982, expanded by King Fahd bin Abdul-Aziz (Hayes, 2009). The most important part in the Holy Mosque is Kaaba is also known as the Sacred House and the Ancient House. Kaaba is located at the center of the Holy Mosque. Kaaba is the place where Muslims face when they pray. Kaaba covers by Kiswa, which is the cloth that covers the Kaaba. Manufacturing stages of Kiswa are seven; dyeing, weaving, designing, printing, embroidering, assembling, and delivering. Kiswa is made of silk. The skein of threads is weighs about 100 grams, and 3000 meters long and 76 cm. high (the kiswa factory). Kiswa is designs by calligraphy of the holey book. The Kiswa is changed every year one time. That is when people go to Mecca to make pilgrimage. Muslims see the Kiswa of the Kaaba as a sign of respect, honor and reverence for The Holy House.
Muslims excelled in the carpet industry. The Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal dynasties transformed the carpets weaving from a minor craft to generation into a statewide globally (Marika, 2011). In The Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal dynasties period, the carpets industry were thrived in great quantity. Moreover, Islamic carpets were traded to Europe and Far East. Many people used to caver their furniture by the carpets, thus, the carpets was expensive. Usually Islamic carpets are found in royal households. In Iran, under the rule of Shah Abbas who ruled Iran from 1587 to 1529, the economy of the country recovered because Islamic trade attracting European (Marika, 2011). After the conquests in Persia and Egypt, weaving patterns ant techniques changed in Turkey (Marika, 2011) (Marika, 2011). The Anatolia, who lived in Turkey, had been famous for their unique style, which has animal and geometric designs (Marika, 2011). The Ottoman carpets characterized by its colors and motifs. The Ottoman court rugs were produced local, in Istanbul. Then spread to other country. Example of which are Cairo and Ushak (Marika, 2011).
In Summary, Islam is a monotheistic faith regarded as revealed through Muhammad as the Prophet of Allah in Mecca. Calligraphy, architecture, and rugs and carpets are the most important art in Islam history. Kufic styles and Naskh styles are the most known styles. Al-Haram, and Kaaba are important places for Muslims thus, Al haram and Kaaba been modified, rebuilt, and expanded more than seven times. Islamic rugs and carpets have a unique style. In the era of the Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal dynasties, Islamic rugs and carpets witnessed great development.
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