What is bedrock and how to use it?: [Essay Example], 459 words GradesFixer

Haven't found the right essay?

Get an expert to write your essay!


Professional writers and researchers


Sources and citation are provided


3 hour delivery

This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by professional essay writers.

What is Bedrock and How to Use It?

  • Category: Environment
  • Subcategory: Nature
  • Topic: Earth
  • Page: 1
  • Words: 459
  • Published: 28 January 2019
  • Downloads: 51
Download Print

Pssst… we can write an original essay just for you.

Any subject. Any type of essay.

We’ll even meet a 3-hour deadline.

Get your price

121 writers online

Download PDF

What is bedrock? Bedrock is a deposit of solid rock that is typically buried beneath soil, and other broken or unconsolidated material. Bedrock is made up of igneous, sedimentary, or metamorphic rock, and it often serves as the parent material. The processes of weathering and erosion affect bedrock. Outcrops exposed to wind and water are often decomposed, or weathered, over time into regolith or smaller particles. In environments characterized by humid conditions that extend for many thousands to millions of years, water may penetrate deep into bedrock to form saprolite, a rock made from the consolidation of clay minerals that remain from the chemical weathering process. Although some bedrock deposits may be strong enough to resist the passage of glaciers and ice sheets over their exposed surfaces, others may be scratched or deeply striated. Erosion may also shape the bedrock of some mountains that serve as the source of glaciers into semicircular basins called cirques.

The bedrock controls on catchment mixing, storage, and release have been actively studied in recent years. However, it has been difficult to find neighbouring catchments with sufficiently different and clean expressions of geology to do comparative analysis. Here, we present new data for 16 nested catchments in the Alzette River basin that span a range of clean and mixed expressions of schists, phyllites, sandstones, and quartzites to quantify the relationships between bedrock permeability and metrics of water storage and release. We examined 9 years’ worth of precipitation and discharge data, and 6 years of fortnightly stable isotope data in streamflow, to explore how bedrock permeability controls streamflow regime metrics, catchment storage, and isotope response and catchment mean transit time. We used annual and winter precipitation–runoff ratios, as well as average summer and winter precipitation–runoff ratios to characterise the streamflow regime in our 16 study catchments. Catchment storage was then used as a metric for catchment comparison. Water mixing potential of 11 catchments was quantified via the standard deviation in streamflow and the amplitude ratio (AS/AP) of annual cycles of δ18O in streamflow and precipitation.

Catchment MTT values were estimated via both stable isotope signature damping and hydraulic turnover calculations. In our 16 nested catchments, the variance in ratios of summer versus winter average runoff was best explained by bedrock permeability. Whereas active storage (defined here as a measure of the observed maximum interannual variability in catchment storage) ranged from 107 to 373 mm, total catchment storage (defined as the maximum catchment storage connected to the stream network) extended up to ~1700 mm (±200 mm). Catchment bedrock permeability was strongly correlated with mixing proxies of σδD in streamflow and δ18O AS/AP ratios. Catchment MTT values ranged from 0.5 to 2 years, based on stable isotope signature damping, and from 0.5 to 10 years, based on hydraulic turnover.

Remember: This is just a sample from a fellow student.

Your time is important. Let us write you an essay from scratch

100% plagiarism free

Sources and citations are provided

Find Free Essays

We provide you with original essay samples, perfect formatting and styling

Cite this Essay

To export a reference to this article please select a referencing style below:

GradesFixer. (2019). What is bedrock and how to use it? Retrived from https://gradesfixer.com/free-essay-examples/what-is-bedrock-and-how-to-use-it/
GradesFixer. "What is bedrock and how to use it?" GradesFixer, 28 Jan. 2019, https://gradesfixer.com/free-essay-examples/what-is-bedrock-and-how-to-use-it/
GradesFixer, 2019. What is bedrock and how to use it? [online] Available at: <https://gradesfixer.com/free-essay-examples/what-is-bedrock-and-how-to-use-it/> [Accessed 20 September 2020].
GradesFixer. What is bedrock and how to use it? [Internet]. GradesFixer; 2019 [cited 2019 January 28]. Available from: https://gradesfixer.com/free-essay-examples/what-is-bedrock-and-how-to-use-it/
copy to clipboard

Sorry, copying is not allowed on our website. If you’d like this or any other sample, we’ll happily email it to you.

    By clicking “Send”, you agree to our Terms of service and Privacy statement. We will occasionally send you account related emails.


    Attention! this essay is not unique. You can get 100% plagiarism FREE essay in 30sec

    Recieve 100% plagiarism-Free paper just for 4.99$ on email
    get unique paper
    *Public papers are open and may contain not unique content
    download public sample

    Sorry, we cannot unicalize this essay. You can order Unique paper and our professionals Rewrite it for you



    Your essay sample has been sent.

    Want us to write one just for you? We can custom edit this essay into an original, 100% plagiarism free essay.

    thanks-icon Order now

    Hi there!

    Are you interested in getting a customized paper?

    Check it out!
    Having trouble finding the perfect essay? We’ve got you covered. Hire a writer

    GradesFixer.com uses cookies. By continuing we’ll assume you board with our cookie policy.