Comprehensive Guide and Turabian Citation Generator

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Essence and History of Turabian Style Citation

The cruciality of citing sources in your research paper cannot be made trivial. In fact, the Turabian 7th edition citing style implemented changes to make the process easier. It was authored by Kate Turabian who coined it out from the University of Chicago citation format. She however made hers as simple as possible, which has now caught the attention of academic workers. 

Turabian citation format is rather straightforward and can be used by all levels of academia: undergrads, postgrads, and even professors. This is because it has proven to be easy when referencing both intext and footnote. 

Perhaps you are working on an online research paper, and you need some help with how to cite a website Turabian format. We’ve got you covered with an automated Turabian citation maker, which can save your time and provide a well-formatted citation in the particular style with just one click. 

However, it is essential that you know the basic requirements of citing in Turabian format. It would be outlined as you read on, and you wouldn’t have problems saying “cite this for me Turabian” anymore. 

Overview of Turabian citation format

As earlier stated, this citation style was derived from the Chicago style, and optimized to become much simpler and easier. The 7th edition of Turabian citation format is unique in its way, and the style varies for different sources including printed sources, web pages, domains, and sites. Still, there are two different quoting patterns that might be used.

Turabian citation can be done in two ways: through notes and bibliographies or author-date style.

  • Notes and bibliographies employ the numbered superscripts footnotes, or endnotes style. This makes for flexibility and explicit referencing of sources.
  • The author-date style employs the pattern where you write the year of publication just after the author’s name. Mostly used for citing science and sociological papers. They are usually placed in parentheses.


How To Properly Cite Sources in Turabian Format

Before creating a citation in Turabian style, it’s essential to understand which of two patterns is required. Educators usually mention this information together with the rest of your paper instructions. Then, you need to identify the source to be cited.

How to Create Turabian Intext Citation in Author-Date Style

As earlier stated, citing in Turabian format can appear in two styles. Let’s now consider the Author-date pattern together with its basic requirements. 


One Author


(Author’s last name Year, page number)


(Howard 2018, 18)

NB: The author’s name and publication date shouldn’t be separated by any punctuation.

Less than Three Authors

Format is same for one author; however, authors’ names are separated by “and” 


(Howard and Doyle 2011, 11-21)

More than Four Authors

In this case, the first author’s name is the only one that is stated. It should be followed by “et al”.


(Howard et al. 2012, 21-33)

Organization as an Author

This is for books authored by an organization 


(Cambridge College 2019, 29)

Unknown Author

In this case, use the book title in place of the author’s name. It should be in quote.


(“Psychology’s impact on Medicine” 2016, 12)

Authors with Same Last Name

This sometimes happens. So, if you are citing such a book, place their initials just after the surname.


(Howard E. and Howard R. 2016)

Two or more Works by Same Author, Same Year

This case is rather important to note, as you may come across one. What you do is to sort the books by title (not author’s name) by adding lower case letters (a, b, c…) to differentiate them:


(Polygamous lifestyle 2017a, 156-176)

(Monogamy: Pros and Cons 2017b, 112-167)

Source with Unknown Date

In this case, replace the supposed date with “n.d” meaning ‘no date’


(Howard n.d., 34)

How to Create Turabian Citation in Note-Bibliography Style

This style of citing can be used as an endnote or footnote. Footnotes are placed at every page’s bottom, while endnotes are the references located on the last page of an entire work. The general format for it is;


Author’s Last Name, Author’s First Name. Title of the source. Compiler, Translator or editor (if available); Edition; Series name, Volume number; Published Location, Publisher and publication date, Citation page numbers.

Some details in this format may not be necessary for all cases. We’ll see some examples for clarity. Let’s see endnotes, then footnotes.

Endnote Example



Howard, Roger. The Eccentricity of fashion space. France: Bluestem Books, 2012, 121-146. 

Electronic Sources

Same format as books, but the Website’s URL and access date is added.


Howard, Roger. The Eccentricity of fashion space. (France: Bluestem Books, 2012), 121-146., June, 2013.

Journal Articles

In print 


Author’s Name, “Article title.” Journal Name. Volume, Issue number, Publication date, Page numbers.


Roger Howard, “Polygamy and Monogamy issues: A British study”. (France: Social studies journals, 2012), 33-46. 

Online sources

In case of online journals, add URL and access date are added.


Roger Howard, “Polygamy and Monogamy issues: A British study”. (France: Social studies journals, 2012), accessed February 13 2013,, 33-46.

Footnotes Examples

To place a footnote in a research paper, you should add superscript numbers for each source cited. Not to worry, our Turabian footnote generator provides all the help you need. Let’s look at how to actually cite footnotes for your research paper.

General Format:

Note number. Author’s First and Last Names, Title of Book: Subtitle of Book. In Title. Place of Publication: Publisher’s Name, Publication Date, Pages Cited.


Doyle, Jackson; “Medical Psychology: How it solves Sexual relationship”. London: Oxford Publishing, 2014, 44.

E-book Author


Doyle, Jackson; “Medical Psychology: How it solves Sexual relationship”. London: Oxford Publishing, 2014, 44. Accessed April 4, 2005. 

Less than Three Book Authors


Doyle, Jackson and Roger Howard. How to Resolve Marital Conflicts. LA: Penguin Books, 2019, 56-77

For more than three authors, add “et al” after stating the first.

Edited Book Citation

In this case, just add ‘Ed’ after the author’s name


Doyle, Jackson and Roger Howard, Ed. How to Resolve Marital Conflicts. LA: Penguin Books, 2019, 56-77.

Dictionary / Encyclopedia Entries

In this case, add the entry name of the source after citing.


Doyle, Jackson, 3rd Ed. Automotive Engineering Principles. LA: Clark Books, 2019, 56-77, s.v. “Advanced Mechanics”


A lot of researchers use YouTube to gather some information these days. So, Turabian has a solution to cite entries from there as well.


Creator’s Name. “Title”. Month, Day, Year of Publication. Format, video length. URL.


Learn and Grow Channel. “Cite this for me Turabian Style.” Published March 29, 2021. Video, 10:18.

Citing a Lecture


Prof. Name. “Title.” Lecture, Location, Month Day, Year.


Roger, Millers. “Afrobeat to the world.” Lecture, Laureate College, May 12, 2020.

Turabian Citation Generator And Why Use It?

If you’ve already got some basic understanding of what this particular citation style is, though you find it too overwhelming to remember all the peculiarities that depend on a source, you’d definitely want to switch to Turabian citation maker. 

There are various Turabian Citation machine generators nowadays though not all of them can create various types of citations depending on the given source: whether it is printed book, journal article, encyclopedia, or even YouTube video. Our Turabian Citation Generator can do all the work for you while saving you the stress of citing yourself. 

If your source is well-known, you need to simply choose a source to cite, include its title, DOI, ISBN, or URL and generate it in Auto input format. 

In case your source is less common (for instance, your university journal, your professor’s book, etc), switch to Manual Input and fill in all the necessary information considering your source (these are usually: contributors, general info, and dates). Then simply click on the Generate Citation button and here you go!


Citing in Turabian style couldn’t be easier with the citation generator. Having understood the basic idea behind the Turabian citation format, go ahead and test it on our Turabian citation generator today, so you’ll be able to concentrate more in particularly writing your next research paper. Happy Citing!


Is Turabian Style the same as Chicago Style?

These two citation styles are similar. Kate Turabian, a founder of Turabian format, just wanted to make Chicago an easier and more applicable style for different types of sources. This is how Turabian appeared.

Why is citing in Turabian important?

Proper citation is extremely important, especially when citing academic sources, encyclopedias and other types of sources within your research paper. Citing in Turabian is one of the easiest ways to support your findings. 

How can I rely on the Turabian Citation Generator?

Our citation generator always keeps all citation styles, and Turabian as well, up to date. It is also available for whatever entry you may want to cite. Besides, it saves you time and the stress of citing Turabian style yourself, so you can rely on it for sure.

How can I format my bibliographies using Turabian Reference Generator?

All you need to do is to provide all the required information such as the author’s name, title, and others as stated on our citation generator, or simply choose the Auto input option that will help to automatically find the needed source for you.

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