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The Turabian manual is becoming an increasingly popular writing style. It comes in two varieties – the notes and bibliography variety and the author-date variety.
The notes and bibliography style cites the sources in numbered footnotes or endnotes. The sources are also cited in reference lists. The notes and bibliography style is popular in humanities, such as literature, arts, and history.
The author-date style is slightly different. Short, in-text citations are used instead of lengthy footnotes. However, detailed reference lists are also inserted at the end of the writings. The author-date style is commonly used in social, natural, and physical sciences.
When it comes to formatting reference lists in Turabian style, the rules are incredibly similar whether you’re using the notes and bibliography or the author-date style. Entries are alphabetically ordered in both cases, with only slight nuances.
Here are some examples of reference list entries in the notes and bibliography style:
Columbia University. “History.” Accessed May 15, 2017. http://www.columbia.edu/content/history.html.
Now, here are the same entries, but in the author-date style:
Columbia University. n.d. “History.” Accessed May 15, 2017. http://www.columbia.edu/content/history.html.
Although reference lists look incredibly similar, the real difference between the two varieties is best visible in parenthetical references.
As previously mentioned, the notes and bibliography style cites all the used sources in footnotes and endnotes and cites them in reference lists. The notes should look something like this:
Shortened notes can also be used, like in the examples below:
On the other hand, the author-date style follows simpler guidelines for in-text citations. There are no footnote or endnote entries, and all in-text citations are inserted in brackets throughout the text, like here:
(Columbia University, n.d.)
Since there are two similar yet different citation variations in the Turabian writing style, you must understand the differences these variations come with, but that’s not all. Creating footnotes, shortened notes, in-text citations, and entire reference lists are time-consuming tasks. Additionally, incorrect citations can lead to plagiarized content that won’t be accepted.
To avoid that, you have to cite all sources properly, both throughout and at the end of your text. With our Citation Generator, you can make accurate citations and reference lists in record time. Simply insert all the relevant information, and the Citation Generator will create a perfect Turabian website citation for you.