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The Turabian citation style started as a booklet designed to help students attending the University of Chicago write formatted theses and dissertations. Today, the Turabian citation manual can be used across various fields due to its flexibility.
Citing sources in the Turabian style comes with two variations – the notes and bibliography and the author-date style. The notes and bibliography style is widely used in the humanities, such as art, history, and literature. On the other hand, the author-date style is more popular across social, physical, and natural sciences.
Just like any other citation style, the Turabian manual also has different guidelines used for the citation of different sources. Since there are two variations of the Turabian style, we’ll provide citation examples for both the notes and bibliography and the author-date style in newspaper articles, respectively. Both are alphabetically ordered.
LaSalle, Peter. “Conundrum: A Story about Reading.” New England Review 38, no. 1 (2017): 95–109. Project MUSE.
LaSalle, Peter. 2017. “Conundrum: A Story about Reading.” New England Review 38 (1): 95–109. Project MUSE.
Cunningham, Vinson. “You Don’t Understand: John McWhorter Makes His Case for Black English.” New Yorker, May 15, 2017.
Cunningham, Vinson. 2017. “You Don’t Understand: John McWhorter Makes His Case for Black English.” New Yorker, May 15, 2017.
Manjoo, Farhad. “Snap Makes a Bet on the Cultural Supremacy of the Camera.” New York Times, March 8, 2017. https://www.nytimes.com/2017/03/08/technology/snap-makes-a-bet-on-the-cultural-supremacy-of-the-camera.html.
Manjoo, Farhad. 2017. “Snap Makes a Bet on the Cultural Supremacy of the Camera.” New York Times, March 8, 2017. https://www.nytimes.com/2017/03/08/technology/snap-makes-a-bet-on-the-cultural-supremacy-of-the-camera.html.
As you can see from the examples above, the notes and bibliography and the author-date style aren’t that different when it comes to formatting reference lists. However, the main difference between these two variations is visible in parenthetical references.
The notes style uses footnotes or endnotes to list all the sources mentioned throughout the text. The list is numerically ordered. Here are some examples:
The author-date style uses well-known in-text citations that contain the author’s last name, year of publication, and the number of pages (if applicable).
(LaSalle 2017, 95)
(Cunningham 2017, 85)
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