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A Comprehensive Approach to Physical Activity at Euclid Middle School

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Human-Written

Words: 2525 |

Pages: 6|

13 min read

Published: Feb 13, 2024

Words: 2525|Pages: 6|13 min read

Published: Feb 13, 2024

Table of contents

  1. Review of Literature
  2. Methods
  3. Intervention strategies
    Participants
    Settings
    Data collection procedures/timeline
    Data collection instruments
    Data analysis plan
  4. References
  5. Appendices

With obesity rates on the rise, and student MVPA time at an all time low, it is important, now more than ever, to provide students with tools and creative opportunities for a healthy and active lifestyle. A school following a CSPAP program should utilize all resources and means necessary in order to build an effective program for its’ students. This includes staff, community and student involvement before, during and after school. Euclid Middle School (EMS) has achieved many of these barriers to physical activity, including building a quality Physical Education program, community and family involvement through school/district/community fun runs and other events and has built physical activity time in during the school day with activity breaks within the classroom and recess time. One area that is in need of improvement is in student involvement in physical activity after school. With the implementation of quality after school activity clubs, EMS students will be that much more likely to combat the rise of obesity rates by aiming for 60 minutes of MVPA on a daily basis.

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When studying the CSPAP Needs Assessment of Euclid Middle School (EMS), the reports find an even smaller percentage of students participating in organized sports as compared to the national average of 50-57 percent, according the the US Report Card. Only approximately one in three student at EMS participate in at least one sport during the school year, which is less than the US Report Card grade of 50-56%. According to CSPAP, a quality before and after school program provides opportunities for all students to “1) practice what they have learned in physical education, 2) work toward the nationally recommended 60 minutes of daily physical activity, 3) become more adequately prepared for learning, 4) engage in safe, social, and supervised activities, and 5) identify activities they enjoy and might engage in long term.” Physical activity offered in a controlled setting before and after school can help prevent sedentary behaviors like sitting and waiting for the school day to end/begin.

The Physical Education Extension Program is relevant to PE and CSPAP. Through the implementation of P.E.P, I want to examine the following question: What are the long-term effects of an after school physical activity club on MVPA levels of students?

Review of Literature

We are a nation currently in distress. According to the CDC, the prevalence of obesity was 18.5% for children aged and affected about 13.7 million children with obesity rates at 13.9% among 2- to 5-year-olds, 18.4% among 6- to 11-year-olds, and 20.6% among 12- to 19-year-olds (CDC 2018.) The adolescent age group, or 12-19 year olds, targets middle school and high school students. Not only are the statistics alarming, they are growing, even tripling since the 1960’s-1970’s. “The average male and female adult in the United States has gained 25 lbs and 24 lbs, respectively, since 1962. The body mass index of the average adult has increased from 25 to 28. Among youth, the average body mass index has increased from 21.3 to 24.1 since 1963. This increase in body weight among adults and youth is partially due to the decreased levels of physical activity” (LaFontaine 2008).

According to the Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans, children and adolescents are encouraged to participate in 60 minutes of physical activity per day. This time should incorporate moderate to vigorous intense aerobic activities at least three days per week. Moderate activities should elevate heart rate and breathing to some extent, and might reach anywhere from a 5 or 6 on an exertion scale (out of 10). Activities for moderate exercise includes activities such as “biking slowly, canoeing, ballroom dancing, general gardening, using your manual wheelchair, arm cycling, walking briskly, and water aerobics (Appendix 1. Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans 2015-2020).” Vigorous activities should really raise your heart rate and breathing rate and should measure between a 7 and 8 on an exertion scale. Examples of vigorous activities are “basketball, jumping rope, running or bicycling on hills, soccer, swimming laps, and martial arts (Appendix 1. Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans 2015-2020).” The Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans also recommends adding in muscle strengthening activities such as weight lifting, calisthenics, resistance training and body-weight exercises at least three days per week. Bone strengthening exercises include most “impact” activities such as jump rope, running, hopscotch, basketball and tennis should also be incorporated three times per week.

Before and after school physical activity clubs are proven to be effective in initiating MVPA in students. In elementary aged students (third and fourth graders), a walking/running club was started examined to see if any substantial MVPA was increased The results found that students reached substantial MVPA strides. The participants reached an average of between 1,502 and 1,731 steps taken and between 8:30-10:02 minutes (50%-57% of program duration) of MVPA at each session (Stylianou, van der Mars, Kulinna, Adams, Mahar, & Amazeen 2016). These students were able to reach higher MVPA time without taking time away from classroom instruction.

In a separate study, research was reviewed in over 750 sources, and Mears and Jago were deduced that after school clubs averaged up to 10 additional minutes of MVPA in students ranging in age from 5-18 (Mears & Jago 2016). In 2006, a similar study was conducted that looked at skill advancements and proficiency in middle and high school students. Most students increased advantage in at least one skill and kept that advancement in their follow up intervention one year later (Barnett, Beurden, Morgan, Brooks, Zask, & Beard 2006) . These studies tell us that students are increasing not only MVPA, but skill acquisition as well.

Methods

Intervention strategies

Fitness principles, concepts and sport skills and strategies will be addressed, providing enrichment and intervention for students in physical education classes. The goal is to provide students with additional opportunity for physical activity and to practice reinforcing skills. In addressing the cognitive factors, knowledge of the skills taught and practiced in physical education (PE) and self-efficacy, or a “person’s confidence in his or her ability to perform a behavior that leads to an outcome” will be evident at PEP. Teachers will allow for individual practice time, partner and group work, and teamwork activities that will allow for multiple chances for success. Activities and modified activities will provide students with ample practice time to help further develop their skills, fitness and knowledge unleashing the students’ confidence in physical activity. To address the socioenvironmental factors, or aspects of the perceived and/or physical environment that promote, permit, or discourage engagement, observational learning will occur and any physical barriers will be taken away. Not only will the PE teacher show examples of positive, safe and skillful play, but the students will be able to observe other students. Through “peer-led” drills and activities, observational learning will be prevalent during PEP. PEP will also remove any physical barriers to physical education, as several different areas will be accessible, for no fee or cost, and equipment will be provided to the students by the PE department. Thirdly, to fulfill the behavioral factors that are classified as “health-enhancing” behavioral skills, intentions, which serve as self-incentives, will be verbalized and written via goal sheets provided by the PE teacher (Glanz et al., 2015). Goal setting, sets up internal standards for behavior, and therefore goals aid in actualizing behavior intentions in order to achieve behavior changes. As students move to self-management of their health behavior, setting behavioral goals becomes crucial to behavior change (Bandura, 2005). Each PEP lesson includes a similar outline, where several different components will be practiced, taught and reinforced. Each lesson will include a short warm up, focused around preparing the body for exercising. A multitude of different cardio and muscular strength and muscular endurance exercises will not only prepare students for learning, but prevent injury. Effort will be focused on and lively, upbeat music will be playing continuously in the background. Next, a cooperative and/or team building game will played which will foster a positive and nurturing culture within the group of students. Students will learn how to handle minor conflicts, how to choose partners/groups quickly, how to encourage others verbally and non-verbally and how to play games safely. This type of activity also builds on self-efficacy around each student. Confidence will be enhanced through mastery experiences, social modeling, verbal persuasion, and practice under stress-free conditions (Glanz 2015 et al., 2015). Following the cooperative activity, skills and strategies for game play will be discussed. These will vary from week to week as a new sport or concept will be rotating every three weeks. With frequently rotating lessons, participants will not only practice a plethora of different skills and reach mastery in several, but it will also increase engagement which will prevent boredom. After skills and knowledge has been reviewed and learned observationally, individual practice, partner, and small/team practice will begin. Drills will be kept to 3-5 minutes each and partners, modifications, and rules will be changed constantly. Once ample time to practice has been given, students continue onto gameplay, or modified game play. This provides an opportunity to develop strategy and also to allow for observational learning of other students. Teams and groups will be selected by the teacher during this time for equal skill disbursement. During “game play” the teacher will observe how the skills/actions from the cooperative/team building games transfer over. Positive feedback and reinforcement is given by the instructor and other students at the time. At the conclusion of the PEP time, students will discuss a “highlight reel” of the day in which students recognize examples in which they grew individually or where they witnessed growth in another students. Following “highlight reel” time, awards and small prizes are given by the teacher to a few students. The enrichment time closes with a popular school cheer and high-fives being passed out!

Participants

Participants in the intervention include 50 students at EMS, a middle school in Littleton, Colorado. Male and female participants will be equally distributed. Ages of participants range from 11-12 years old. All students in this study will be at the 7th grade level and currently are placed in a P.E class at this school. 21% of students participating are enrolled or qualify for the free/reduced lunch plan. 78% of the subjects are white, 20 % are hispanic, and 2% are black. 9% of the participants are also involved in an intramural sport through the school. 84% of participants are also active in another club sponsored by the school such as TSA, jazz band, recycling club, etc.

Settings

The study is to include a Physical Education Extension Program into Euclid Middle School (PEP). This program will be conducted weekly at Euclid Middle School on Tuesday afternoons from 4:00pm-5:10pm. Activities will be set up in different areas of the school including the gymnasium, fitness center and wrestling/activity room.

Data collection procedures/timeline

Student participants in the PEP group were required to attend the program with a 90% or better attendance rate. The concept of PEP is to extend a student’s learning and skill set beyond the physical education experience and to increase minutes of MVPA among students before and after school. Cognitive knowledge and strategy familiarity around the units of instruction to be covered in addition to the survey outlining physical activity, goal setting and tracking, and self-confidence in these skills are a part of the pretest. The posttest will administered to PEP participants at the initial meeting, during week 9 of the study and again at the completion of the 18-week study.

Question responses and video reflections will be examined with growth/difference in data at the forefront of the analysis. PEP’s central focus is to look directly at relationships between MVPA in students’ lives before, during and after an enrichment and physical extension club. It will be clear as to if student’s reached a level to which they acquired behavior change as knowledge and self-efficacy and goal-tracking are constructs being measured. With the increase of physical activity at the center of the research it will prove the benefits of PEP.

Data collection instruments

Data will be collected via Screencastify, a recording device which students can access on their personal computers at home. Data will also be collected on google forms/sheets and via written reflections. Students will have the option to complete the surveys online via recording device, or on paper. Finally, qualitative observations/interviews/field notes.

Other forms of data collection be collected via pedometers. Students will keep a log of their steps one day a week without PEP and students will log their step count on a day when they attend PEP. A google form will be sent out once per week for the students to record their data on club days via non club days. This will provide substantial data and will allow for comparison between club days vs. non-club days. Graphs and charts will be compiled.

Data analysis plan

Themes and patterns will be linked from pre, mid and post reflections and surveys. Survey responses will be graphed and recorded throughout the club duration.

References

  1. Appendix 1. Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans - 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines - health.gov. (n.d.). Retrieved October 13, 2018, from https://health.gov/dietaryguidelines/2015/guidelines/appendix-1/
  2. Bandura, A. (2005). The Primacy of Self-Regulation in Health Promotion. Applied Psychology, 54(2),245–254.
  3. Barnett, L. M., Beurden, E. van, Morgan, P. J., Brooks, L. O., Zask, A., & Beard, J. R. (2009). Six year follow-up of students who participated in a school-based physical activity intervention: a longitudinal cohort study. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 6(1), 48. https://doi.org/10.1186/1479-5868-6-48
  4. Childhood Obesity Facts | Overweight & Obesity | CDC. (2018, August 14). Retrieved October 13, 2018, from https://www.cdc.gov/obesity/data/childhood.html
  5. Glanz, K., Rimer, B. K., & Viswanath, K. (2015). Health Behavior: Theory, Research and
  6. Practice (5th ed.). One Montgomery Street, Suite 1000, San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
  7. Mears, R., & Jago, R. (2016). Effectiveness of after-school interventions at increasing moderate-to-vigorous physical activity levels in 5- to 18-year olds: a systematic review and meta-analysis. British Journal of Sports Medicine; London, 50(21), 1315. http://dx.doi.org.unco.idm.oclc.org/10.1136/bjsports-2015-094976
  8. National Physical Activity Plan Alliance. The 2018 United States Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth. Washington, DC: National Physical Activity Plan Alliance, 2018.
  9. Stylianou, M., van der Mars, H., Kulinna, P. H., Adams, M. A., Mahar, M., & Amazeen, E. (2016). Before-School Running/Walking Club and Student Physical Activity Levels: An Efficacy Study. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport; Washington, 87(4), 342–353. https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org.unco.idm.oclc.org/10.1080/02701367.2016.1214665
  10. Tom LaFontaine. (2008). The Epidemic of Obesity and Overweight Among Youth: Trends, Consequences, and Interventions. American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine, 2(1), 30–36. https://doi.org/DOI: 10.1177/1559827607309688

Appendices

PEP Survey (Pre, Mid and Post)

To be recorded via google forms or Screencastify video

On average, I exercise 60+ minutes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 days a week. (Circle your response)

On days I am not as active, it is because of ______________________.

I would like to improve on these skills________________________________________.

I average a total of _________ steps per day without PEP (Tuesdays excluded).

I average a total of _________ steps per day with PEP (Tuesday step count).

I feel better about _______________________ when I attend PEP.

I would be interested to see ___________________ at PEP.

A fitness goal I have is ___________________ (not sport specific).

Post test only--

9. PEP could be improved by________________________________.

10. Post test only--PEP helped me learn and practice skills to become more confident in physical activity. True or False. Why?

Get a custom paper now from our expert writers.

11. What else would you like to share about your experience in the PEP program? 

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This essay was reviewed by
Dr. Charlotte Jacobson

Cite this Essay

A Comprehensive Approach to Physical Activity at Euclid Middle School. (2024, February 13). GradesFixer. Retrieved July 18, 2024, from https://gradesfixer.com/free-essay-examples/a-comprehensive-approach-to-physical-activity-at-euclid-middle-school/
“A Comprehensive Approach to Physical Activity at Euclid Middle School.” GradesFixer, 13 Feb. 2024, gradesfixer.com/free-essay-examples/a-comprehensive-approach-to-physical-activity-at-euclid-middle-school/
A Comprehensive Approach to Physical Activity at Euclid Middle School. [online]. Available at: <https://gradesfixer.com/free-essay-examples/a-comprehensive-approach-to-physical-activity-at-euclid-middle-school/> [Accessed 18 Jul. 2024].
A Comprehensive Approach to Physical Activity at Euclid Middle School [Internet]. GradesFixer. 2024 Feb 13 [cited 2024 Jul 18]. Available from: https://gradesfixer.com/free-essay-examples/a-comprehensive-approach-to-physical-activity-at-euclid-middle-school/
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