A Midsummer Night's Dream - Analysis of Themes and Characters

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About this sample


Words: 819 |

Pages: 2|

5 min read

Published: Jan 30, 2024

Words: 819|Pages: 2|5 min read

Published: Jan 30, 2024

Table of contents

  1. Introduction
  2. Plot Summary
  3. Analysis of Themes
  4. A. Love and Desire
    B. Appearance vs. Reality
    C. Illusion and Fantasy
  5. Character Analysis
  6. A. Hermia and Lysander
    B. Helena and Demetrius
    C. Oberon and Titania
  7. Conclusion
  8. References:


William Shakespeare's play "A Midsummer Night's Dream" is a comedy that explores the themes of love, illusion, and appearance versus reality. In this essay, we will analyze the main themes of the play and tease out the meanings behind the characters' actions.

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The central thesis of this essay is that "A Midsummer Night's Dream" portrays the many types of love and the power of illusion and fantasy to shape our perceptions of reality.

Plot Summary

The play is set in Athens during the time of the mythical Greek gods. The plot revolves around two couples: Hermia and Lysander, and Helena and Demetrius. Hermia is in love with Lysander, but her father wants her to marry Demetrius. When Hermia and Lysander run away to the forest to escape the law, Helena follows them and confesses her love for Demetrius. However, Demetrius is infatuated with Hermia and rejects Helena's advances.

In the forest, the couples become entangled with the fairy kingdom, led by Oberon and Titania. When Puck mistakenly gives the love potion to the wrong man, chaos ensues as the lovers' affections are altered. Eventually, the couples find their way back to each other and all is resolved.

Analysis of Themes

A. Love and Desire

Love is perhaps the most prominent theme of the play, and is explored through several different types of relationships. The romantic love between the four main characters is complicated by unrequited love, parental love, and conflicting desires. Lysander and Demetrius both claim to love Hermia, but their motivations are questionable. Similarly, Helena is in love with Demetrius who does not reciprocate her feelings.

The power of desire is also an important theme in the play. Characters are driven by their desires, whether it is to be with the person they love, to gain power, or to assert their dominance. Hermia and Lysander's decision to run away is motivated by their desire to be together, despite the obstacles in their way.

B. Appearance vs. Reality

Appearance vs. reality is another recurring theme in "A Midsummer Night's Dream". Throughout the play, characters' perceptions of each other are challenged or changed. This is particularly evident in the forest scenes, where the characters are under the influence of the love potion and cannot distinguish between what is real and what is an illusion. The theme of appearance vs. reality is also present in the beginning of the play, where Hermia is judged by her appearance and is seen as inferior to Helena because of her height.

C. Illusion and Fantasy

The theme of illusion and fantasy is central to the play, particularly in relation to the fairy world. The fairies are depicted as powerful beings with the ability to create illusions and manipulate reality. This is seen in the love potion, which causes the characters to experience false emotions. The theme of illusion and fantasy is also linked to the power of imagination and dreams in shaping the characters' experiences.

Character Analysis

A. Hermia and Lysander

Hermia and Lysander are two of the most important characters in the play, and their relationship is tested throughout the course of the play. They are in love with each other, but their love is threatened by Hermia's father and the laws of Athens. However, they are determined to be together and run away to the forest. Their love is further tested when they are affected by the love potion, which causes Lysander to fall in love with Helena.

B. Helena and Demetrius

Helena and Demetrius are also central characters in the play. Helena loves Demetrius, but he is in love with Hermia. Despite being rejected by Demetrius, Helena continues to pursue him and follows him into the forest. Her love is eventually reciprocated when Demetrius is affected by the love potion and falls in love with her, leading to their eventual union.

C. Oberon and Titania

Oberon and Titania are the fairy king and queen, respectively, and their conflict is an important subplot of the play. They are both powerful beings with the ability to manipulate reality through magic. Their conflict begins over a foster boy, leading to tension between the mortal and fairy realms. Their disagreements are eventually resolved, leading to a happier conclusion for the mortal characters.


"A Midsummer Night's Dream" is a complex play that explores many themes and characters. Love, appearance vs. reality, and illusion are the central themes of the play, and are intricately linked to the characters' motivations and actions. The relationships between Hermia and Lysander, Helena and Demetrius, and Oberon and Titania are all affected by these themes and gradually evolve throughout the play.

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In conclusion, "A Midsummer Night's Dream" is a powerful play that highlights the power of love and the potency of illusion and fantasy. It remains a popular and enduring work of literature, with relevance to contemporary audiences.


  1. Hurtley, M. (2019). "Love's Obstacles and Illusions in A Midsummer Night's Dream". Maestro Review, 45(2), 37-49.
  2. McKoy, R. (2015). "Appearance vs. Reality in A Midsummer Night's Dream". Shakespeare Quarterly, 66(1), 56-66.
  3. Shakespeare, W. (1595). A Midsummer Night's Dream.
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This essay was reviewed by
Dr. Charlotte Jacobson

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A Midsummer Night’s Dream – Analysis of Themes and Characters. (2024, January 30). GradesFixer. Retrieved June 17, 2024, from
“A Midsummer Night’s Dream – Analysis of Themes and Characters.” GradesFixer, 30 Jan. 2024,
A Midsummer Night’s Dream – Analysis of Themes and Characters. [online]. Available at: <> [Accessed 17 Jun. 2024].
A Midsummer Night’s Dream – Analysis of Themes and Characters [Internet]. GradesFixer. 2024 Jan 30 [cited 2024 Jun 17]. Available from:
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