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A Research of Apartheid Racism in South Africa

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Introduction

The motive of this essay is to state and define the term racism. It is commonly the belief in the superiority of one group of people to another, which often feedback in injustice and discrimination based on their lives where individuals come from. However, there are different types of past examples of prejudice, the Holocaust, the Apartheid rule in South Africa, bondage and separation in United State of America and captivity in Latin America. But in this perspective the idea is too broad, I will be specifically stressing more on Apartheid racism.

The term Apartheid means separateness of one groups of people to another which was forced by the State party régime in South Africa in the middle of 1948 and 1994. The resolution of this is to state and explain this different oppression in order to show that the main factors which led the collapse of the apartheid are the economic penalty which was crippling South Africa’s economy, as well as the social interaction between the white minority in the government system and the black majority in the liberation movement. The discussion will be based on the birth of Apartheid, the reasons of implementing apartheid policies, the apartheid legislations, highlighting the significance and side effects, and how it has been removed or come to an end by the hard struggles of native Africans and their leaders.

The Birth of Apartheid Racism

During the 16th century, the minority whites in South Africa were today known has Afrikaners were descended from the Great Britain in favor of land, minerals and other resources. They were vast number of natural resources which made them to stay and colonized the natives in South Africa. During the World Wars, tremendous economic and social changes took place as a direct result of engagement by the white Afrikaners. Roughly about 200,000 deployed to fight with British against the Germans. The factories were increased to produce military supplies at the war. The whites have no choice but to employ natives from African communities and villages.

Eventually, as a result the black Africans were flooded into the cities and creating squatter camps near major industrial centers without any proper sanitation. As social tension increased, the prime minister of South Africa Daniel Francois Malan introduced apartheid has the law in the governing system. The governing party enforced this system of racial separation through legislation by the national party in the year 1948 to 1994. When the government pass the bill, all the natives or black people felt that it was violating their lives, majority of the black inhabitants and other ethnic groups were minimized in quantity of their rights, association, and movements whereas white minority ruled was maintained. They were being isolated from whites and were seen as lowest group of citizens.

The Apartheid Laws

Altogether, the apartheid legislations established by the South African government were over 317 laws. There will be only three major laws that choose to be discussed. The first law implemented was The Population Registration Act. The main motives were to clearly recognized people and stereotyping them into their respective groups as stated by their ethnic groups or races. The Mixed Marriages Act was a policy rather against the Christian believes. Despite that, this law was in place to make sure that intermarriage between the Europeans and the non-Europeans should not be allowed. Finally, The Group Areas Act was implemented because compared to the population growth of South Africa, it was approximately 20 million people including every race and ethnic groups in Africa. According to the law, absolute majority of the nonwhites were imposed by that law to move out of the cities and towns. These three policies were carried out by the government when apartheid was still activated in the government system of South Africa until 1993.

Reasons of Apartheid Racism

Furthermore, the main motives behind these white folks were to completely remove all the black races out of the cities and denied them of any rights and human dignity of accessing basic needs. The idea of implementing these laws are because of the Great Depression and World War 2 across the global communities had brought economic distress to South Africa, and challenges the government to build up its policies of ethnic isolation. The other indication of white reaction to the black population was the fear. The minority of white were panic because compared to the black population they were small and might lose their position, the land that they first discovered and their lifestyle.

The view point of the whites who resolved in South Africa towards the native in the towns and cities were doubtful and they have mixed feeling ideas about the non-whites. As mining and industries grew, more and more natives were involved as hard labor. On the other hand, for this small period, the idea of racism was rolled out across the globe meaning one tribe is more powerful than another in economically, socially and politically. For this purpose, apartheid was emphasized.

Side Effects of Apartheid Policies

According to the Apartheid law, the blacks were forced to move on rural areas called homeland. They were deprived of voting, and paid with low earnings of salaries. The black Africans were classified in poor standard to the beneficiary of services provided such as schools and hospitals. Natives were not allowed to enter the white’s premises under any circumstances, if they disobey the rules there are consequences. Most of all, the whites effectively excluding black from South African politics which was totally unfair.

However, despite the difficulty and hardship of the high tension situation in Johannesburg, these poor native Africans were using civil disobedience to fight for their freedom. There were several protests and strikes were conducted by the whole entire black South Africans. Unfortunately, as seen through history, many of them were being tortured to death, they were restricted to have access to the land, and wage-earning employment were forced onto them, some of them were accused of treason against their own country. For instance, like Nelson Mandela, Paul Costa and Robert McCrae who were the well-known African politicians.

Removal of Apartheid Policies

In fact, the history foretold that Nelson Mandela has been one of the most dominant persons. For sure, this person was an extremely brave, courage and admirable among all other black people because it was very fascinating that one man could end the Apartheid in his country. Nevertheless, one of the opportunities that he took to make a stand was the assumption of the South African President F. W De Klerk in 1989. Nelson Mandela’s action was so vital to bring down the minority rule in South Africa. The leadership qualities were inbuilt in him because he came to a royal family and have a strong ambition to change his country. He was the head leader of the African National Congress youth league which was the leading opposition groups in South Africa. According to the law, he was sentenced to jail for 27years. However, Nelson Mandela was sent out of the prison by the approval of South African president named De Klerk. He already knew that Nelson Mandela as the possibilities to bring Apartheid law to an end. The help of Mandela in the African National Congress youth league performed tremendous chapter in the national day of protest.

Moreover, the number of protestants were extremely increasing to 100 000 which were threat to the minority and that eventually forced the government to act quickly for the safety of the minority whites. Therefore, the natives were well organized and three main protests were conducted so effectively that put down the end of Apartheid. Although Mandela was not only the factor to the end the Apartheid regime. Some of the other factors would be Western societies, religious groups and foreign business companies in Africa. The Western countries such as America, Canada, and China condemned the idea of Apartheid law because it is a global issue in economic and political. The business houses such as the banks and other companies were retreated because the protest of apartheid cause fear to them. Many religious groups like, Christianity’s and Islam’s put pressure to the South African government to remove the apartheid law.

Conclusion of Racism

Thus it is well mentioned that, the apartheid regime in South Africa is the separation of two ethnic groups or the difference of the native blacks, colored, African Indians and the Europeans. The white Africans or European thought to themselves that, they were perfect and superior over other races in Africa. In order to develop and display their idea into action, apartheid was first introduced in 1948 by the National party government. All of a sudden, apartheid regime was led to a massive destruction because it was against the interest of natives Africans. Apparently, both parties have the motives behind of what they were doing. The white Africans thought it was right doing of implementing apartheid law according to their own interest.

On the other hand, the majority of black Africans were extremely affected and not satisfied with the apartheid law and that is where the problems arouse. The apartheid law lasted almost several decays. Within this period, policies were being made strictly to be followed by nonwhites. These poor black Africans were pressured with the consequences of apartheid law. At last, the apartheid regime came to an end. The man behind all these hardships, struggles, pain and had shared tears with his black African was Nelson Mandela, the freedom fighter and others who contribute efforts to support him achieved their dream of what rightfully belongs to them.

Recommendation

From my point of view, I want to recommend that, the establishment of apartheid law was not good because it went beyond the limitation of human beings. Because every person in this world has the right to move freely and do things. They have the right to the fundamental needs to sustain their lives. How can a foreigner from another places come to rule over and deprived the rights of the truly landlords of that place? To be honest, though I’m a pacific Islander but categorized under black generation I am quite not happy with apartheid law. Thank you for those people who make a stand to bring South African in peace and the idea of racism should be stop. Let us care for each other and hoping for a better future.

References

  1. Brooker, J (2010) Colonial and Apartheid Era, Retrieved from http://www.history.com/topics/apartheid
  2. Christopher, S. (1989) Union of South Africa: Retrieved from http://www.sahistory.org/sites/default
  3. Francis, F.M. (1997) An African Predicament: Retrieved from http://brooking.edu/article/ethnicity-african-predicament
  4. Joseph, R. (2006) Defender of Apartheid. Nelson Mandela’s Death in 90 Retrieved from http://www.sahistory.org/sites/default.
  5. Kaurna, A. (1995) The African Affairs. Retrieved from http://www.org/oxfordjournalist.araf
  6. Lichtenstein, A. (2005) Making Apartheid Work; Crime and Social Justice. Retrieved from http://google.com.the policies.

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