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A Survey of Security Issues in Trust and Reputation System for E-commerece

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Table of contents

  1. Abstract
  2. Introduction
  3. Review of Literature
  4. Research Methodology
  5. Ecommerce Security
  6. Security Control Measures
  7. Conclusions
  8. References


Trust and reputation systems are always subject to attacks if an adversary can gain a benefit in doing so. The list of different attacks against them is extensive. Assaults like knocking, newcomer, Sybil, intrigue and numerous more are liable to ebb and flow inquire about. Some of them introduce techniques that permit distinguishing ill-disposed conduct, henceforth giving security against assaults. Be that as it may, brilliant foes will adjust their conduct procedures to the current insurance systems and sidestep a portion of the security techniques. In this paper, we talk about the alternatives accessible to foes for accomplishing their objective: Gaining an advantage. For this, we examinations the outstanding assaults and propose security techniques which give protection or insusceptibility against them whenever henceforth freely from the astuteness or system of enemies. Our second concentrate is to expound on the issue of dependably recognizing a foe among executing members and its effect on conceivable security strategies. Web-based business is purchasing and offering products and ventures over the Internet. Internet business is a piece of e-business as determined in. E-business is a structure that incorporates not just those exchanges that inside on purchasing and pitching products and ventures to create income, yet in addition those exchanges that help income age. These exercises incorporate producing interest for products and ventures, offering deals support and client benefit, or encouraging correspondences between business accomplices. One of the basic achievement components of web based business is its security. Without the confirmation of security, web based business may not work ordinarily. And it is a complexity issue, because ecommerce security relates to the confidence between sellers and buyers, credit card and extremely sensitive personal information. Therefore, the security of e-commerce depends on a complex interrelationship among applications platforms, database management systems, and software and network infrastructure and so on. Any single weakness can jeopardize the ecommerce security.


Today’s trust and reputation systems are widely used in the field of ecommerce. These systems are based on trust and reputation models with diverse mathematical approaches. The management of memberships and presentation of trust and reputation relations is usually the task of a trusted third party in centralized systems. In the absence of a, each member is responsible for managing the trust and reputation presentation by itself. This circumstance happens in completely decentralized frameworks. Rating based models speak to the most normally utilized reason for trust and notoriety frameworks. They are utilized as a part of internet business stages, for example, eBay, Amazonian numerous other online market or item audit destinations.

More refined methodologies, for example, Bayesian likelihood, fluffy rationale or models in view of discrete esteems do exist, yet have not yet been incorporated broadly in business frameworks. This is most likely because of the way that these models are excessively badly designed, making it impossible to use for the normal client. One way to deal with reduce this bother is given by Rise giving representation to these clients Some specialists included techniques in their models to distinguish antagonistic conduct which provided some type of assurance against one or a few assaults impacting the notoriety of different individuals. These techniques depend on reducing. Here, suppositions of individuals which don’t coordinate the transcendent assessment inside the trust framework are either overlooked or decreased in their criticalness. As we would like to think, this ought not to occur in light of the fact that it is practically difficult to check whether the marked down sentiment is from an enemy or legit part. For instance, in reasonable appraisals for level board TV’s were utilized as reason for the assessment. 50 foes were entrusted to help two level board evaluations while decreasing the rating of two others. The outcomes demonstrated that the foes were distinguished and their effect on the appraisals was unimportant. The issue is, that in another situation the past foes may now be straightforward raters. The outcome will bathe identical in the event that we simply switch the description “honest rater’ with “adversary’. Presently, fair raters will be distinguished as foes.

Numerous security techniques just work if the suspicion is right about who the enemy and who the fair part is. Think about two individuals, each appraising an Item. The rating of part An is high, expressing that all desires are metro outperformed. Part B gives a low appraising, expressing that the item is broken and has a terrible quality. If previous ratings of other members were high, then member’s rating could be considered malicious. With low previous ratings, member might be identified as an adversary, damaging the reputation of the product or manufacturer. However, both members’ ratings could be justified. Member received a product which was perfectly fine, while member B was less lucky. The product had several manufacturing errors. Without information about the complete transaction, communication an evaluation process, a correct decision about which member is the adversary is almost impossible. It is due to this problem that we advise that all opinions should be accepted as given. In this paper, we identify security methods which do accept all opinions without reducing their influence based on assumptions regarding malicious behavior.

Review of Literature

Trust management systems manage the trust relationships between business partners by maintaining the trust level of the e-commerce participants and make them available to potential ecommerce customers when needed. The trust level is derived from feedback ratings submitted by the trading partners after the successful completion of the transactions. The submitted feedbacks are analyzed, aggregated, and made publicly available to the interested parties The accuracy of trust value means the correctness or truthfulness of trust information. This also means the estimation of trust value of users is accurate at the time of evaluating. Users have no control over the accuracy of the trust value given by the trust management system. Much of the information needed to compute trust value can be gathered from various sources as mentioned earlier. This information could be accurate or could be designed to mislead the user into falsely trusting the provider.

According to Corbitt B.J.(2003), as e-commerce customer accessing information relies on online trust management system, supporting the availability, integrity and confidentiality of this information is crucial. It is difficult, if not impossible, to complete a transaction without revealing some personal data, such as shipping address, billing information, or product preference. Users may be unwilling to provide this necessary information or even to browse online if they believe their confidential information is invaded or threatened. IT security components to determine the trustworthiness of ecommerce participants to helps online customers to decide whether or not to proceed with a transaction. Based on this framework, we proposed an approach for filtering out malicious feedbacks and a trust metric to evaluate the trustworthiness of service provider.

According to Sharma A & Yurcik.W (2004), the accuracy of trust value means the correctness or truthfulness of trust information. This also means the estimation of trust value of users is accurate at the time of evaluating. Users have no control over the accuracy of the trust value given by the trust management system. Much of the information needed to compute trust value can be gathered from various sources as mentioned earlier. Trust management systems should have the capabilities for cloud provider to present their service capabilities and allow participants to make assessments and decisions regarding the potential transactions. It is important for a trust management system to have a specific mechanism that accurately evaluates the trustworthiness of cloud providers. This framework incorporates the basic security measures and trust evaluation components that filtering all ratings. According to Joseph P.T, S.J (2008), security in a cloud environment requires a systemic point of view, from which security will be constructed on trust, mitigating protection to a trusted third party. In recent years many researchers have focused on trust related issues, the general trend in trust management system is to consider all feedbacks as accurate

Research Methodology

Security issues of Electronic Commerce: The Internet technology is creating huge opportunities to expand existing businesses and forming what is called New Economy, Worldwide Economy, or Electronic-Commerce. Online business depicts business exchanges, client administrations, requesting, conveyance and installment, and intra-business errands that make utilization of general society web and the advanced arranged processing condition that connections associations and people in business, industry, government, and the home. In any case, numerous associations are threatened by the new advancements, uncertain of how to exploit them, and thinking about how these advances will bolster existing interests in abilities and frameworks. Furthermore, this new sort of economy or business accompanies a ton of difficulties particularly those identified with trust and security issues. In this paper, the diverse sorts of security issues confronting internet business frameworks will be displayed and arranged, what’s more, general rules and measures on how to deal with these security issues to protect e-commerce systems will be presented and discussed.

Security and Trust: In a general sense, the purpose of security mechanisms is to provide protection against malicious parties. In this sense there is a whole range of security challenges that are not met by traditional approaches. Customary security instruments will normally shield assets from noxious clients by confining access to just approved clients. In any case, much of the time we need to shield ourselves from the individuals who offer assets with the goal that the issue in certainty is switched. Data suppliers can for instance act misleadingly by giving false or deluding data and customary security systems can’t ensure against this kind of risk. Trust and notoriety frameworks then again can give insurance against such dangers. The distinction between these two ways to deal with security was first portrayed by Rasmussen and who utilized the term hard security for conventional instruments like confirmation and access control, and delicate security for what they called social control mechanisms in general of which trust and reputation systems are examples.

Ecommerce Security

E-commerce Security is a part of the Information Security framework and is specifically applied to the components that influence online business that incorporate Computer Security, Data security and other more extensive domains of the Information Security structure. Online business security has its own specific subtleties and is one of the most noteworthy noticeable security segments that influence the end client through their day-by-day installment association with the business. Today, protection and security are noteworthy worry for electronic advances. M-business shares security worries with different innovations in the field. Security concerns have been discovered, uncovering an absence of trust in an assortment of settings, including business, electronic wellbeing records, e-enrollment innovation and long range interpersonal communication, and this has Straight forwardly impacted clients. Security is one of the chief and proceeding with worries that limit clients and associations drawing in with online business. Web based business applications that handle installments (web based keeping money, electronic exchanges or utilizing check cards, MasterCard’s, PayPal or different tokens) have more consistency issues, are at expanded hazard from being focused than different sites and there are more prominent results if there is information misfortune or adjustment. Internet shopping through shopping sites having certain means to purchase an item with protected and secure the online business industry is gradually tending to security issues on their interior systems. There are rules for securing frameworks and systems accessible for the web based business frameworks work force to peruse and actualize. Instructing the shopper on security issues is still in the infancy stage but will prove to be the most critical element of the e-commerce security architecture. Trojan horse programs

Digital Signatures and Certificates: Digital signatures provide the requirement for authentication and integrity. A sending message is run through a hash function and new value is generated known as message digest. The message digest and the plain text encrypted with the recipient’s public key and send to recipient. The recipient decrypts the message with its private key and passes the message through the supplied hash algorithm. Digital certificate are also used for security purposes. CA issues an encrypted digital certificate to applicant that contains the applicant’s public key and some other identification information. The recipient of an encrypted message can use the CA public key to decode the digital certificate attached to the receiving message that’s verify it as issued by the CA and then obtains the sender public key and identification information store within the certificate. Digital certificate contains the following information:

  1. Certificate holder name.
  2. Certificate Expire data.
  3. Certificate holder public key.
  4. Signature of authority.

An algorithm provides the capability to generate and verify signatures. Signature generation makes use of a private key to generate a digital signature.

Security Control Measures

There are some detailed security control measures in the ISO 7498-2 Standard lists. For example, there are involving authentication, get to Control, information secrecy information trustworthiness and non-revocation. PC security specialists broadly acknowledge this order. What’s more, they are likewise prescribed by the creators great control measures. For instance, get to control is one of the safety efforts. It can confront the dangers that might be caused by an unapproved client through equipment. Absolutely, there are mixes with operators, danger strategies, and safety efforts. Notwithstanding, not these blends are accessible. We simply use this three-dimensional view for a better security risk management.

Security Challenges:

  • The Internet was never designed with security in mind.
  • Many companies fail to take adequate measures to protect their internal systems from attacks.
  • Security precautions are expensive {firewalls, secure web servers, encryption mechanisms.
  • Security is difficult to achieve.

Security Risks:

  1. Bugs or miss-configuration problems in the web server that can cause the theft of confidential documents.
  2. Risks on the Browsers’ side i.e. breach of user’s privacy, damage of user’s system, crash the browser etc.
  3. Interception of data sent from browser to sever or vice versa. This is possible at any point on the pathway between browser and the server i.e. network on browser’s side, the network on server’s side, end user’s ISP (Internet Service Provider), the server ISP or either ISP’s regional access.

Cooperative Responsibility:

Cooperative responsibility means that the success of ecommerce in terms of security involves the responsibility of different actors who complement each other rather than a single responsibility. Security conditions Part of this responsibility lies in management’s commitment to the necessary expenditure on security. Websites that present such information to their users so that they can verify it before conducting their transactions encourage users to feel that the companies are committed to their customer’s security. The government can play a major role in ecaned accountable for security violations. It is the education system’s responsibility to increase individual awareness and perception by enriching people’s knowledge and experience of security and the use of e-commerce as well as propagating a culture of using eservices to carry out activities online.

Privacy policy:

According to a study released by commerce ‘ Net and Nielsen Media Research, More than 2 out of each five individuals in North America are currently Internet clients and the web is getting to be an essential piece of everyday existence Without a thorough protection security arrangement, it’s unrealistic to burn through cash in a capable and cost-powerful way. Build up a protection security arrangement that incorporates characterizing the affectability of data, the introduction of the association if that data was the probability of those dangers getting to be reality.

Security policies design the way in which an organization gathers, utilizes, and ensures information, and the decisions they offer customers to practice rights when their own data is utilized. The premise of this approach, purchasers can decide if and to what degree they wish to make data accessible to organizations. Emit key cryptography, transposition and substitution. The transposition figure scrambles the first message by changing the characters’ arrange in which they happened. Whereas in the substitution figure, the first message was encrypted by replacing their characters with other characters in both types, both the sender and receiver share the same secret keys.


In banks all the functions and activities are safe by using security issues. In this examination in saving money administration open record and check the adjust and do any exchange and erase any record safely on the off chance that we know the secret word of any client. The principal highlight of the exploration that the information is sheltered in keeping money administration for long time and open any record after quite a while and . This safe saving money framework programming is getting to just by the bank and by client. A client can’t get to the next client’s record in e-bank framework. Solid secret word is utilized to secure financial balance of any client rather than feeble watchword on the grounds that solid secret key isn’t effortlessly recollected and utilized. Criticism can be acquired effortlessly as web is virtual in

nature. Client dedication can be pick up. Individual consideration can be given by bank to client additionally quality administration can be served. Some examination has been composed on study .The respondent need to answer the inquiries all alone. A few people fulfill claim our perspectives. In any case, a few people groups were not fulfills with us. Respondents have adequate time to give well throughout answers. Ecommerce is widely considered the buying and selling of products over the internet, but any transaction that is completed solely through electronic measures can be considered e-commerce. Day by day E-commerce and M commerce playing very good role in online retail marketing and peoples using this technology day by day increasing all over the world. E-commerce security is the protection of e-commerce assets from unauthorized access, use, alteration.


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