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Most of these days, we hear lots of accidents due to drunken driving. Drunken drivers will not be in stable condition and so the rash driving is inconvenience for other road users and also question of life and death for the drunken drivers and for others. In this project, we are developing an Auto Lock System. The input for the system is from Detection Sensors either from Alcohol Breath or any other mechanism. The controller keeps looking for the inputs from these sensors. If there are any traces of Alcohol above the set limit, then the system will lock the Engine. As vehicle automobiles are beyond the scope of this project, we are simulating the process by blocking the current from Start Button of the car.
The purpose of this project is to develop a method for vehicle accident prevention by using Alcohol Detector in an effort to reduce traffic accident cases based on driving under the influence of Alcohol. Alcohol affects the central nervous system of a person. Even 0. 05% BAC (Blood Alcohol Content) makes the sense of judgement impaired and the ability to control steering is affected. This system can detect the Alcohol concentration in vehicle to prevent the behavior of drunk driving. If driver is drunk and tries to drive, the system detects Alcohol presence in his/ her Breath and locks the Engine so that the vehicle fails to Start.
More and more people have realized that the drunk driving does great harm to public security, which concludes to develop a kind of system to stop the Hit and Run cases effectively. The accidents from heavy vehicles cause affect to the traffic in road. In past there are many prototype models are made but implementation of it is practically difficult.
Blood/Breath Alcohol Concentration (BAC) is the amount of Alcohol in the bloodstream or in one’s Breath. BAC is expressed as the weight of Ethanol, measured in grams in 100 milliliters of blood, or 210 liters of Breath. BAC can be measured by Breath, Blood, or Urine tests. Alcohol may affect Alcohol driving skills at BACs of 0. 05 gm. The concentration of alcohol in blood: 0. 05 grams per 100 millilitres. Breathe Alcohol content: 0. 24 milligrams per 1000 millilitres.
The entire system consists of MQ3 (Alcohol sensor), Buzzer, Start/Stop Button, Microcontroller (Arduino mega), LED Display.
Engine Start Button: It is used to Start/Stop the car engine. After sensing Alcohol by sensors, it gives signal to Microcontroller (yes/no) which give access to operate Start Button.
Alcohol Sensor (MQ3): This sensor is suitable for detecting alcohol concentration in our breath. Its sensitivity is high and has fast response.
Microcontroller (Arduino): It is termed as breathing analyzer circuit. After taking signal from Alcohol Sensor it analyzes the % (percentage) of Alcohol that it is more or less than the limiting range value of normal human beings. Alcohol level concentration should be about 0. 05 grams of 210 liters of breath.
LCD Display: It displays the output of Arduino circuit. It displays two outputs:
It makes noise on receiving signal, if Alcohol is detected by the Sensor above limiting range of a normal Human Being.
LCD display is one of the main screen display that are being commercial used. The biggest advantage of the LCD display that it is efficient and have low energy consumption. A 16×2 LCD display 16 characters per line and there are 2 such lines. In this LCD Display each character is displayed in 5×7 pixel matrix. This LCD has two registers, namely, Command and Data. The command register stores the command instructions given to the LCD. A command is an instruction given to LCD to do a predefined task like initializing it, clearing its screen, setting the cursor position, controlling display. The data register stores the data to display it in LCD. The data is the ASCII value of the character to be displayed on the LCD.
In 1996 AVR Microcontroller was produced by the “Atmel Corporation”. The microcontroller includes the Harvard architecture that works rapidly with the RISC. The features of this microcontroller includes different features compared with the other like sleep modes-6, inbuilt ADC (Analog to Digital Converter), internal Oscillator and serial data communication performs the instruction in a single execution cycle. These microcontrollers were very fast and they utilize low power to work in different power saving modes. There are different configuration of AVR microcontrollers are available to perform various operation like 8-bit, 16-bit, 32-bits.
Features: Operating voltage of this microcontroller is 5V, input voltage is 7-12V, digital I/O pins are 23, DC current per I/O pin is 40mA, flash memory is of 8K.
The ATmega8 AVR microcontroller includes the following blocks. One of them is an SPI, 4-pins are allocated to the microcontroller to implement this system of communication USART is one of the most powerful communications.
A Buzzer is an audio signalling device, which may be Mechanical, Electromechanical or Piezoelectric. Typical uses of buzzers and beepers include alarm devices, timers and justification of user input such as mouse click or stroking of key.
We are using Piezoelectric Buzzer. Piezoelectric buzzers or Piezo buzzers were invented by Japanese manufacturers and fitted into a wide array of products during the 1970s to 1980s. It may be driven by an oscillating electronic circuit or other audio signal source. A Piezoelectric Buzzer also depends on acoustic resonance or Helmholtz resonance to produce an audible beep.
In this project, we will go over how to build an Alcohol Sensor with an Arduino. The Alcohol Sensor we use is MQ3 sensor this sensor is not only tactful to Alcohol, particularly to Ethanol, which is the type of Alcohol which is found in wine, beer and liquor.
This type of Sensor circuit can be used as a Breathe Analyzer to check a person’s blood alcohol level. Just as we exhale carbon dioxide when we breathe out, we also breathe out some alcohol if we have alcohol in our blood. The more ethanol in your blood, the more there is in the air on exhalation. This alcohol contents gives a good sign for a person who is drunk and how drunk they are.
The amount of alcohol exhaled into the air is proportional to amount of alcohol which will be found in a person’s blood. Alco meters use a built in formula to judge blood alcohol content from exhaled air alcohol content.
The key is essentially a transmitter that sends a low-frequency signal to the Engine. Once the fob is inside the car then by pressing the start button, car’s receiver picks up the signal and sends power to start the Engine.
This feature simplifies turning the car On and Off. It is really as simple as pressing and holding a button. After you get into the car, you should apply the brake then press and hold the Engine Start/Stop button until your Engine turns on. To turn off the car, make sure that the car is in parked gear, and then press the Engine Start/Stop button until the Engine shuts off completely.
The Alcohol Detection system works on a simple principle, if a driver has been drinking, the Alcohol Breath analyser Sensor will detect the level of Alcohol in the driver’s Breath and if it crosses a set Threshold, an alert will come and the vehicle Engine will stop immediately.
Software Program for the system developed in Embedded C. ISP (Internet Service Provider) is used to dump the code into the Microcontroller.
This project is a real time model that can automatically lock the Engine of vehicles when a drunken driver tries to start a car. The use of this proposed device saves the life of the driver and also the remaining passengers. It has very simple application. The life span of the project is high. It has low or zero maintenance cost and of course low power consumption. This is a developed design to efficiently check drunken driving. By using this design a safe journey is possible.
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