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All About Sprinting

  • Subject: Life
  • Category: Sports
  • Essay Topic: Running
  • Pages: 2
  • Words: 915
  • Published: 08 October 2018
  • Downloads: 97
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All About Sprinting essay

Introduction

Sprinting is used in many sports that incorporate with running. Running over a short distance in a limited period of time. Basically, it is a way of quickly reaching a target or goal, or avoiding or catching an opponent. Energy that used can only sustain for 30-35 seconds due to the depletion of phosphocreatine stores in muscle, and perhaps secondarily to excessive metabolic acidosis as a result of anaerobic glycolysis.

Sprinting events are the fastest competitions in track, it happens so quickly and it seem like a single sprinting stage. But sprinters all go through three distinct phases:

    1. Drive

All sprinters begin at this phase. When he/she bursts from a dead still position into a sprint. Sprinters begins in a crouched position, in the starting blocks, and pushes forward while leaning ahead. In order to make efficient use of his/her energy, the sprinter should lean with his/hers whole body rather than bending at the hips. In this stage, the foot hits the track below or slightly behind the hips.

    1. Maximum Velocity

After the drive phase, the runner changes to the maximum velocity phase. At this point the runner becomes fully erect in his posture, standing tall without his/her hips lowered. As the name suggests, the runner achieves his/her maximum speed in this phase, and maintaining it for as little as 10 to 30 meters in the 100 meters dash, or as much as 200 meters in the 400 meters sprint.

    1. Maintenance

This is the final phase of a sprint. Compare with endurance sport sprinting is not as though as it is, however sprinters still cannot maintain top speed for the entire race. In the final stage, sprinters begin to slow down. In this phase, the goal is not to continue accelerating, but to minimize deceleration. Runners should be careful in this stage not to increase his stride length, which can have the inadvertent effect of slowing him down further. To achieve the best performance, runners should follow these three stages. Runner should know how and when to gain speed, maintain speed and then gradually slow down. To make the most of a run, a sprinter should train to accelerate as quickly as possible, then maintain the maximum velocity stage as long as possible before inevitably slowing down. (Arbuckle, n.d.)

There are many factors that affected sprinter’s performance. For an example is Genetics. Through research and experience, it is now known that genetics is considered to be only one factor in determining playing speed potential. Epstein (2013) looked at the “sport gene” in exceptional athletes. He traveled worldwide looking at the nature versus nurture in extraordinary athletes. He concludes that both genetics and training are equally factors of exceptional athletic success. With a knowledgeable speed coach and the proper training, athletes can dramatically improve both playing speed and quickness. As Epstein (2013) concluded, nature and nurture are both essential components for athletic achievement.

Second factors that affected sprinting is muscle fiber types. There are three types of muscle fiber, these are slow-twitch (type I), fast-twitch (type IIa) and fast-twitch (type IIb). Fast twitch type IIa muscle fibers can provide both aerobic and anaerobic activity. They develop force somewhat fast and have moderate twitch time, power output, fatigability, aerobic power, force development, and anaerobic power. While fast twitch type IIb muscle fibers develop force rapidly and have a very short twitch time. These fiber types have a high power output and high anaerobic power. These type IIb fibers have low endurance and low aerobic power. The table below illustrate the types and functions of the various types of fibers well. (Don Pump CSCS*D, NSCA-CPT,*D, RSCC, 2016)

Body composition is also one of the factor that affecting sprinting. The definition of body composition is the proportion of fat, muscle, and bone of an individual’s body. To determine the best course of action in regard to a well-rounded training program body composition testing should be a part of the overall testing an athlete. The purpose of the body composition tests is to determine whether the percent of the body fats falls within an acceptable range. Excess fat and pounds can decrease speed and inhibit efficient movement (Silvestre, West and Kraemar, 2006).

There are many methods to increase sprinting speed in athletes, Such as conventional sprint running training, resisted sprinting, resistance training, ballistic training, plyometric, and so on. Resistance training is effective for increasing sprinting speed in athletes, an example is Squat. Squat is the most commonly-explored resistance training exercise, by increasing in squat strength are strongly associated with improved sprinting speed. Plyometric are effective for improving sprinting speed in athletes. The muscle spindles detect the speed and intensity of a stretch and so during plyometric, detect the rapid stretching of the quads (when landing). Their response is to protect the muscle from over stretching by increasing the activity of the quads (the agonist muscles) and so the force the muscles produce. (Beardsley, 2016).

References

1. Arbuckle, D. (n.d.). What Are the Three Stages of Sprinting. Retrieved from Azcentral.

2. Beardsley, C. (2016). Strenght & Conditioning. Retrieved from Sprinting Don Pump CSCS*D, NSCA-CPT,*D, RSCC. (2016, June 29). Retrieved from Factors Affecting Speed: http://www.donpumpperformance.com/factors-affecting-speed/

3. David J. Epstein author. (2013). The sports gene: inside the science of extraordinary athletic performance. New York, New York: Current.

4. Silvestre, R., West, C., Maresh, C. M., & Kraemer, W. J. (2006). Body Composition and Physical Performance in Men’s Soccer: A Study of a National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Team. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 20(1), 177–183.

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