Analysis of Langston Hughes' Paper "The Negro"

About this sample

About this sample


Words: 685 |

Pages: 2|

4 min read

Published: Jun 13, 2024

Words: 685|Pages: 2|4 min read

Published: Jun 13, 2024

Table of contents

  1. The African American Experience
  2. Social Commentary and Call to Action
  3. Conclusion

Langston Hughes, a central figure in the Harlem Renaissance, eloquently captures the essence of African American identity and experience in his essay "The Negro." This piece stands as a testament to Hughes' ability to weave historical context, cultural identity, and social commentary into a compelling narrative. Through an analysis of "The Negro," one can better understand Hughes' perspective on race, heritage, and the African American struggle for equality and recognition.

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Hughes' essay begins with a poignant declaration: "I am a Negro: Black as the night is black." This opening statement sets the tone for a narrative steeped in historical consciousness and cultural pride. Hughes situates the African American experience within a global and historical framework, tracing the lineage of black people from ancient civilizations to the present. He references the grandeur of African empires, the horrors of the transatlantic slave trade, and the resilience of black individuals throughout history.

In doing so, Hughes not only affirms the dignity and worth of African heritage but also challenges the prevailing notions of racial inferiority. By invoking historical figures such as the Pharaohs of Egypt and the builders of the pyramids, Hughes underscores the rich and diverse contributions of black people to human civilization. This historical grounding serves to counteract the dehumanizing narratives propagated by a racially biased society.

The African American Experience

Hughes' essay is not merely a historical recounting but also a reflection on the contemporary African American experience. He writes, "I’ve been a slave: Caesar told me to keep his door-steps clean. I brushed the boots of Washington." These lines poignantly illustrate the continuity of oppression faced by black individuals, from ancient times to the era of American slavery and beyond. Hughes uses these historical references to draw a parallel between past and present, highlighting the persistence of racial injustice.

However, Hughes also emphasizes the resilience and agency of African Americans. He writes, "I’ve been a worker: Under my hand the pyramids arose. I made mortar for the Woolworth Building." By juxtaposing the labor of ancient builders with that of modern workers, Hughes asserts the enduring strength and ingenuity of black people. This narrative serves to reclaim black labor as a source of pride rather than subjugation.

Hughes' portrayal of the African American experience is multifaceted, encompassing both suffering and triumph. He acknowledges the brutality of slavery and segregation but also celebrates the cultural and artistic achievements of black individuals. This duality reflects Hughes' broader vision of African American identity as complex and dynamic, shaped by both historical trauma and creative resilience.

Social Commentary and Call to Action

Beyond its historical and cultural dimensions, "The Negro" serves as a powerful piece of social commentary. Hughes critiques the systemic racism and economic exploitation that continue to plague African Americans. He writes, "I’ve been a victim: The Belgians cut off my hands in the Congo. They lynch me still in Mississippi." These lines starkly convey the ongoing violence and dehumanization faced by black individuals, both domestically and internationally.

Hughes' essay can be seen as a call to action, urging readers to confront and challenge the injustices that persist in society. He concludes with a hopeful vision for the future: "Tomorrow, I’ll be at the table when company comes. Nobody’ll dare Say to me, ‘Eat in the kitchen,’ Then." This vision of inclusion and equality speaks to Hughes' enduring belief in the possibility of social change.


In "The Negro," Langston Hughes masterfully combines historical reflection, cultural affirmation, and social critique to create a compelling narrative of African American identity and experience. His essay not only celebrates the rich heritage and resilience of black people but also challenges readers to confront the systemic injustices that continue to afflict society. Through his eloquent prose and incisive commentary, Hughes offers a vision of a more inclusive and equitable future. His work remains a powerful reminder of the enduring struggle for racial justice and the profound contributions of African Americans to the fabric of human civilization.

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Hughes' essay stands as a testament to his literary genius and his unwavering commitment to social justice. It continues to resonate with readers today, offering both a historical perspective and a timeless call for equality and recognition.

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This essay was reviewed by
Dr. Charlotte Jacobson

Cite this Essay

Analysis of Langston Hughes’ Paper “The Negro”. (2024, Jun 06). GradesFixer. Retrieved July 18, 2024, from
“Analysis of Langston Hughes’ Paper “The Negro”.” GradesFixer, 06 Jun. 2024,
Analysis of Langston Hughes’ Paper “The Negro”. [online]. Available at: <> [Accessed 18 Jul. 2024].
Analysis of Langston Hughes’ Paper “The Negro” [Internet]. GradesFixer. 2024 Jun 06 [cited 2024 Jul 18]. Available from:
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