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One of man’s most important concerns today is to produce enough food to feed an increasingly growing population. For this it needs breeders, planters and farmers who use methods that respect biodiversity. In that line the Union of Concerned Scientists (USC) of the USA suggests that people should adopt “agroecologically based methods such as organic fertilizers, crop rotation, and cover crops. ”
Using science-based practices, we can produce abundant food while preserving our soil, air and water” including all hyperlinks used. For this work I will emphasize on these two methods: organic fertilizers, crop rotation.
Organic fertilizers are mainly derived from natural waste from plants or animals. They are used in bottom fertilization and gradually release nutrients such as nitrogen, potash or phosphorus but also trace elements essential for the good health of plants. Since assimilation is slower, there is no risk of leaching. As an example of organic fertilizer “compost and grass clippings do what fertilizers are supposed to do: They enrich the garden soil with nutrients that plants and microscopic soil life-forms are eager to use”.
The principle of rotation is not to return to the same place crops of the same family before four years on average, and be careful not to plant one after another vegetables, plants or crops of the same type: fruits, flowers, leaves or roots. “One system in central Africa employs a 36-year rotation; a single crop of finger millet is produced after a 35-year growth of woody shrubs and trees has been cut and burned. In the major food-producing regions of the world, various rotations of much shorter length are widely used. ”
In my area all three methods listed in the introduction could work well. But I will choose to discuss about organic fertilizers. I believe that using organic fertilizers comply with the safety of the environment.
In our Cameroon, where the majority of the population still uses manual energy, the use of chemical fertilizers is still widespread. Which is not only harmful to the environment but also to human health. Hence the best alternative is the organic fertilizer which is derived from natural waste from plants or animals. What is interesting in the production of organic fertilizer is that all inputs come from our immediate surroundings. Our farming methods that are still manual, where everything is still done with man’s hands, the use of organic fertilizers is difficult. The working time that can be used to manufacture this fertilizer can be used to make profitable other sectors. some could, if necessary, devote themselves solely to the production of this fertilizer, which will require for farmers an additional financial effort.
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