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Arab Spring; Origin, Context, Features and Results

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Table of contents

  1. Origin
  2. Causes
  3. International impact
  4. Criticism and international reactions
  5. Arab spring at the un

Origin

The Arap Uprising/Spring refers to a series of popular uprisings in countries Arab occurred from 2010 to the present. Rated speed by the international press, the chain of conflicts began with the Tunisian revolution, in December 2010. However, Noam Chomsky, renowned philosopher, and activist believes that the October 2010 protests in Western Sahara were the starting point of the riots. At first, the Western press also named as Arab democratic revolution.

The riots are unprecedented in the Arab world, because although there have been many revolutions in the history of the secular and republican. Until now they were characterized by birth from military coups and make way for governments to some authoritarian measure with or without popular sipport, while current events are described by a claim democratic ,and a substantial improvement in living conditions. By the nature of their protests ( freedoms democratic, political, economic and social changes), some European observers associate them with the European revolutions of 1830 and 1848 and 1989 in Eastern Europe , after the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989.

The Arab Spring, although started as popular protests, several countries raised the issue systematically, and civil uprising took a global role. In Tunisia and Egypt , where he held elections after cutting government was established Islamist later ousted a military coup in 2013 – the revolts toppled the governments in a few weeks, but in countries like Libya or Syria , the government responded and refused to relinquish power, which led to part of the population to arm themselves and start civil wars in both countries.

In Libya, the rebels overthrew the government force six months after the starting of the revolution with the help of NATO. However, in Syria , the war was prolonged and intensified military impact, without displaying the near end and records hundreds of thousands estimate the death toll; many see the situation in Syria the darker side of the Arab Spring, because of the emergence of, for example, the Islamic State , which has taken vast expanses both Syria and Iraq – explosion jihadist who is also taking place in Libya the end of the Gaddafi government. However, in the remaining countries, the rebellion has been reflected only in small protests and demonstrations.

This series of protests for democracy or a change of regime or government initially contrasted with the silence of the European Union and a relatively large support from the United States. The MFA (Minister of Foreign Affairs) of Italy, Franco Frattini explained lack of European response grounds that they were not independent states and colonies of Europe. The European Union met on 31 January of 2011 to decide whether or not support the popular uprisings in Tunisia and Egypt ; but hardened their stance against Hosni Mubarak , President of Egypt, called for a peaceful solution and not condemn his government .

The first reviews of the spread of revolution from Tunisia to its Arab neighbors not decided on his success, but advertise certain generalities in countries such as autocracy and the current capacity of mobilization of the people, as intellectuals and academics as Azzedine Mariachi and Abdennour Benatar. The protests have been known to cause a call for democracy demonstrations in China, where they were quickly quelled. La Primavera cost the countries of the region nearly $ S800.000 billion through 2014.

Causes

The Arab democratic revolution is considered the first massive wave of protests secular and democratic the Arab world in the twenty-first century. The protests, social nature and in the case of Tunisia, supported by the millitary, were caused by structural and demographic factors, harsh living conditions rooted in unemployment , to which corrupt and authoritarian regimes were added.

Explains Pedro Fuentes from the PSOL these regimes, born of Arab nationalism from the 1950s and 1970s, they were becoming repressive governments that prevented a credible political opposition that led to a vacuum filled by Islamist movements of various kinds. Other causes of poor living conditions, in addition to unemployment and social and political injustice of their governments; they lie in the lack of freedoms, high militarization of the country and lack of infrastructure in places where the all benefit of growing economies going into the hands of corrupt.

Some have analyzed why these revolutions/uprising could not happen before. It has been said that even the Cold War the Arab countries sup Edita ban their national interests to those of the superpowers American and Soviet, faced by global hegemony. It is not until the finish of the Cold War when exceptions, these countries are allowed greater political freedom, coinciding with an extensive process of globalization to spread the ideas, freedom of speech from the West and by the end of the 1st decade of the second millennium ended up having a significant presence of social networks , which imposed on Internet in 2008 .

The system, in turn, implemented its presence in the 2000s thanks to the development plans of the European Union. The majority of the protesters were young (in fact protests from Egypt have been called Revolution youth ) Internet and near the main difference with previous generations is that they have primary studies, and sometimes even higher and university. Immanuel Wallerstein believes the Arab Spring today as a second Arab Revolt , heir to what called spirit or stream 1968 -in front of the outside-colonialist and anti-authoritarian -in front of the Interior- which did not succeed in his day and now rising again though with contradictions, and should be considered a fundamental part of global movements protests ( 2010-2011 Protests in Greece , 15-M Movement , Student Mobilization in Chile 2011-2013 , student mobilizations in Colombia in 2011 and 2012, Occupy Wall Street , strikes in China in 2011 ).

Finally, the deep economic crisis that plunged the countries of North Africa, along with most of the rest of the earth in a more dire poverty, was a trigger to produce increases in the price of goods, causing the famine in the poorest.

International impact

On February 12, the Foreign Secretary Britain, William Hague called on the governments concerned to refrain from using the power against protesters, and also greater democratic reforms in the region. On February 21, Prime Minister Britain, David Cameron became the first world leader to visit Egypt after the overthrow of Mubarak, ten days before. A news blackout was lifted when the prime minister landed in Cairo for five hours a stop that was added in a hurry at the start of his tour planned for the Middle East.

Like many of the world’s leading oil producers are countries in the Middle East, the unrest has caused an increase in oil prices. The International Monetary Fund has, therefore, revised its forecast for 2011 providing for a higher price and also reported that food prices could increase. 96 In addition, concerns about the Suez Canal in Egypt have increased shipping prices of oil.

Criticism and international reactions

Some scholars and experts, including Slavoj Zizek and Robert Fisk , have argued that the range of international responses to the various protests, revolts and revolutions associated with the Arab revolutions demonstrates the hypocrisy of governments in the Western world and elsewhere. Žižek denounced the “Western liberal reaction to the uprisings in Egypt and Tunisia, often show the hypocrisy and cynicism.” When asked if he thought Hosni Mubarak, the Egyptian president, was an “authoritarian ruler” before the modern movement ousted him from power, President Barack Obama said he tends to “not use labels to people,” he called it a “stalwart ally in many respects to the United States of America” and said that Mubarak “has been a force for stability in the region. ”

Protests in many affected countries have attracted extensive support from the international community while brutal government responses have complied with conviction. In the case of the protests in Bahrain, Morocco, and Syria, the answer International has been much more nuanced. Some critics have accused Western governments, including France, the UK, and the US, of hypocrites in the way they have respond to the protests. Noam Chomsky accused the Obama administration of trying to dampen the revolutionary wave and stifle modern democratization efforts in the Middle East. Also, the role played by countries that have taken issue with the attitudes assumed by the Western powers such as Russia and China, has been denounced as inspired by interests and objectives.

Arab spring at the un

On September 26, the Syrian issue was taken up by the Security-Council at the level of Foreign Ministers. Formally, the discussions focused on a concept paper circulated in Germany. The document was dedicated to cooperation between the Security Council of the UN and the League of Arab Nations. The Secretary-General of the Arab League and Western representatives used the Security Council of the UN as a platform to condemn Russia for appeal that its right to veto.

Supposedly that was the reason I was blocked what would have been a fruitful cooperation between the Arab League and the UN. In response, Russian FM (Foreign Minister) Sergey Lavrov said the events in the Middle East and NA (North Africa) confirm once again the need to respect the fundamental principles of the United Nations Charter and above all respect for the sovereignty and the territorial integrity of states, noninterference in internal affairs and non-use of threat or force. Lavrov also reported that on September 26 passed the FMs (Foreign Ministers) of BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa) countries issued a joint statement emphasizing the role of the Press in Geneva as a foundation for finding a way out to the Syrian crisis unlike draft Security Council resolutions never went into effect.

At the same time, the activities against Syria began in the session of the General Assembly as well as in some Arab and Western capitals. Sheikh Hamad bin Khalifa Al Tani, Emir of Qatar, said that in view of the failure of the Security Council to adopt resolutions, the Arab states must involve themselves in Syria and they had everything they needed to do. The failure of the UN was used as a pretext to destroy the structure of the United Nations. For example, the foreign minister of Iceland said, the truth is that the Security-Council has become an obstacle to international efforts towards solving situations such as in Syria. Then he added, the Syrian issue is also a wake up call for the UN Security Council thereof. Syria has shown how mysterious is the Council and how is detuned to the needs of the modern world.

The representative of Iceland noted the repeal of veto that would enable one of the five permanent members can overcome a decision taken by the remaining 14. Again Lavrov had to demonstrate here that the legal basis for handling the Syrian crisis existed in the Geneva Accord. The Russian minister asked that all members of the Task Force conclusively confirm the commitments that they had all taken in Geneva. He emphasized that this was the shortest way to stop the loss of human lives.

Lavrov insisted that those who oppose the implementation of the agreement deposited on their shoulders an enormous responsibility. He continued that they insist on a ceasefire only the Syrian government and encourage the opposition to intensify hostilities, in fact; they push Syria deeper and deeper into the abyss of bloody strife. The minister brought up that extremists have increased their activities in Syria, including al-Qaida terrorist acts perpetrated against civilians and civilian infrastructure.

On September 28, the Council of Human Rights of the United Nations received a new report from the Independent International Commission of Inquiry on Syria. He voted for the extension of the mandate of the independent panel and included new members in your team. Besides Americans and Turks Citizens two new members joined the group Vitit Muntarbhorn, UN Special Rapporteur on Human Rights in North Korea and Carla del Ponte, former chief prosecutor of the International Court of Justice.

The long history of false accusations of Carla del Ponte speaks for itself. Council resolution is drafted in a rather harsh language. The document condemns the continuing, widespread and gross violations of human rights and fundamental freedoms by the Syrian authorities and the Shabby militia controlled by the government, the use of heavy weapons and force against civilians, massacres, arbitrary executions, Extra deaths judicial persecution and murder of opponents, human rights defenders, journalists, arbitrary detention, enforced disappearances, difficulty accessing medical treatment, torture, sexual assault and abuse, including children, as well as any violation of human rights abuses by armed opposition groups. Russia voted against them.

Before the election, the Russian representative said that this time the member states have almost made a commitment saying that the current resolution was more balanced than previous to also mention the fact that violence against the opposition and condemning first terrorist acts committed by Syrian militants. However, Russia did not accept some of the findings, including unilateral perspective on the slaughter of Al-Houla while similar events were ignored. The Russian representative stated that the problem of slaughter of Al-Houla is pending. Thus, the week passed was an Arab.

The false speech lies permeate is now widely rooted day. The term Arab Spring is already being used by the Security Council to refer to coups and attacks from the outside, meaning that we have entered a period of Arab Spring etc., etc. Speaking the language of the actual values, not imaginary, ARAB SPRING symbolizes a historical involution of the Arab world and the finish of the prominent role he played in the national liberation movements in colonial and dependent countries during the second half of the twentieth century.

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