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8086 Microprocessor is an advanced version of microprocessor 8085 that was designed by Intel in the year 1976. It consists of powerful instruction set, which provides operations like multiplication and division easily. 8086 is a 16-bit microprocessor which has 20 address lines and16 data lines that provide up to 1MB storage. It has two modes of operation: Max mode and Min mode. Max mode is suitable for a system having multiple processors and Min mode is suitable for a system having a single processor.
Microprocessor 8086 is divided into two different parts: BIU (Bus Interface Unit) and EU (Execution Unit).
BIU takes care of all data and address transfers on the buses for the EU like fetching instructions from the memory, sending addresses, reading as well as writing data from the ports and memory. Only the BIU has a direct connection with the System Buses and the EU and BIU are connected with the internal bus.
BIU has the following parts:
EU gives instructions to the Bus Interface Unit stating from where it has to fetch the data and decode and execute the instructions. Its function is to control the operations on data using the instruction decoder and the ALU. Execution Unit has no direct connection with the system buses, it performs operations over data through the BIU.
Parts of the Execution Unit:
ALU: ALU stands for Arithmetic and Logical Unit. It handles all the arithmetic and logical operations, like +, -, ×, /, ||, &&,! o2perations.
Flag Registers: It is a 16-bit register which behaves like a flip-flop i.e it changes its status according to the result stored in the accumulator. It has 9 flags which are divided into 2 groups: Conditional Flags and Control Flags.
Conditional Flags: They show the result of the last arithmetic and logical operation stored in the accumulator.
Control Flags: These flags control the operations of the Execution Unit.
There are 8 general purpose registers, i.e., AH, AL, BH, BL, CH, CL, DH, and DL.These registers can be used individually to store 8bit data and can be used in pairs to store 16bit data. The valid register pairs are AH and AL, BH and BL, CH and CL, and DH and DL.It is referred to the AX, BX, CX and DX respectively.
Stack pointer is a 16-bit register which holds the address from the start of the segment to the memory location, where data was most recently stored on the stack.
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