Body Dysmorphic Disorder Literature Review

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Words: 1261 |

Pages: 3|

7 min read

Published: Jan 31, 2024

Words: 1261|Pages: 3|7 min read

Published: Jan 31, 2024

Wilhelm et al. (2019) This study determined that Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) is more effective than supportive in lowering Body-dysmorphic Disorder (BDD) symptoms intensity and associated BDD related understanding, depression associated symptoms, functional disability, and QOL, and if these effects are long lasting. The research included randomized clinical assessments that took place in hospital setting on patients diagnosed with Body-dysmorphia. Subjects (n = 120) were randomized to the CBT BDD part (N = 61) or the supportive-psychotherapy part (n = 59). Weekly treatment took place at the hospitals for twenty-four weeks, followed by three and six months of follow up assessment. Body-dysmorphic disorder and associated symptoms seemed to get better with both CBT BDD & supportive-psychotherapy, although CBTBDD was related with more congruous positive development in symptom severity and QOL.

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Aderka et al. (2014) This research evaluated body-image factors among sixty eight outpatients suffering from primary obsessive compulsive disorder (N= 22), social-anxiety (N = 25), & panic disorder (N = 21). Candidates completed the self report measures of body-image issues, feelings towards appearance, & anxiety. Body-image issues & feelings towards appearance didn’t particularly vary b/w the groups. However, social-anxiety symptoms suggested body-image issues, appearance evaluation and body-areas satisfaction & obsessive compulsive condition symptoms suggested beliefs regarding appearance. The result suggests that social-anxiety condition & obsessive compulsive condition might be related to varying factors of body-image. Suggestions for treating anxiety disorders and for further research are discussed.

Fang, Sawyer, Aderka & Hofmann (2013) The research studied the impacts of psychological-based treatments for SocialAnxiety Disorder on BDD concerns. In Study (1), it was discovered that twelve weekly group sessions of CBT resulted in a considerable decrease in BDD symptoms severity. In Study (2), it was discovered that an attention-retraining-intervention for SAD was related to a decrease in BDD symptoms, in comparison to a placebo-controlled condition. These discoveries bolster the thought that psychological treatments for people with SAD improve co occurring BDD issues.

Schieber, Kollei, Zwaan, Müller & Martin (2013) This research studied perfectionism, aesthetic-sensitivity & the behavioural inhibition system (BIS) in Body-dysmorphic Disorder. Moreover, the relationship between these traits and the degree of dysmorphia concerns was studied. Participants with Body-dysmorphic Disorder (N=58) & a population-based controlled sample(N=2071), chosen from a rep. German population survey, completed self report questionnaires evaluating DSM-V criteria of Body-Dysmorphia and the other factors that the research sought to measure. Candidates with Body-dysmorphic Disorder informed considerably elevated levels of perfectionism along with higher levels of behavioural inhibition system reactivity in comparison to the population-based controlled sample, on the other hand the two smaples didn’t vary considerably in terms of aesthetic-sensitivity. But for the entire sample, every one of the character traits was connected in-dimension to dysmorphia concerns. Present Body-dysmorphic Disorder models sum up perfectionist behaviour & aesthetic-sensitivity to be susceptibility factors. Additionally, the present investigation proposes that Behavioural Inhibition System reactivity is associated with body-dysmorphia. Self reported aesthetic-sensitivity wasn’t seen as outwardly expressed in body-dysmorphic disorder, however alongside perfectionism and behavioural inhibition system reactivity, aesthetic-sensitivity was by and large connected with dysmorphic issues.

Fang & Hofmann (2010) This study draws parallels between Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) & Body-dysmorphic Disorder (BDD) in co-morbidity, phenomenologies, cognitive predispositions, treatments outcomes, and cross cultural facets. The study provides that Social Anxiety Disorder & Body-dysmorphia are extremely co-morbid, demonstrate nearly same age of onset & demonstrate equivalent cognitive-biases for deciphering uncertain social data in a negative way. Moreover, the results from treatment outcome-related studies have exhibited that improvements in Social Anxiety Disorder were notably related with enhancements in Body-dysmorphia. Results from the cross cultural research propose that Body-dysmorphic Disorder might be considered as a subtype of Social Anxiety in certain Eastern societies.

Kelly, Walters & Phillips (2010) The current research studies first, SAD & its aspects in Body-dysmorphic Disorder & second, the cross sectional & eventual relationship between SAD symptoms & impairement in Body-dysmorphia. People with DSM- 4 Body-dysmorphic Disorder with the absence of co-morbid social-phobia (108) finished measures of social-anxiety and psycho-social working at test admission (T1). Psycho-social working was additionally evaluated at a twelve- month follow up session (T2). Severity of social-anxiety (caused by Body-dysmorphia or some other cause) was measured by the Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN). Moreover, candidates took part in an interview using the Duke Brief Social Phobia Scale (BSPS) to measure social anxiety free of body-dysmorphic disorder. At (T1), candidates displayed increased levels of social-anxiety on SPIN & sub-clinical measures of social-anxiety on the BSPS. Higher social-anxiety was related with poor psycho-social performance in cross sectional & prospective-analysis. The result suggests that some facets of social-anxiety, particularly social-fear & avoidance, might be important helping components to functional detriment in individuals with Body-dysmorphia.

Wilhelm, Buhlmann, Hayward, Greenberg & Dimaite (2010) This case study offers a thorough explanation of the process of Cognitive Behavioral Treatment (CBT) of a patient suffering from Body-dysmorphic Disorder (BDD). The participant was put into in treatment for ten weeks for 50 min sessions. The treatment concentrated on psychological-education, mental reorganization, exposure-response avoidance & perceptual rehabilitation practices. The participant’s Body-dysmorphia symptoms became considerably better during the whole procedure. This case-report presents various clinical methods & offers additional support for Cognitive Behavioral Treatment as a reliable therapy for patients with Body-dysmorphic Disorder.

Rief, Buhlmann, Wilhelm, Borkenhagen & Brähler (2006) This research intended to uncover prevalence-rates of Body-dysmorphic Disorder in the society & to evaluate clinical characteristics related with it. Of 4152 total candidates 2552, age 14 to 99 yrs, took part in the German countrywide survey. This research also evaluated suicidal ideation relative with the conviction of being ugly in terms of their physical appearance, along with their inclination towards cosmetic surgeries. The frequency of Body-dysmorphia in the sample was 1.7%. Individuals with this condition also indicated increased percentages of suicidal ideation and attempts. Body-Dysmorphic condition was also connected to diminished income, decreased rates of living with someone, & increased rate of joblessness. This study concludes that self reported Body-dysmorphia is fairly usual and related with notable co morbidity.

Pinto & Phillips (2005) This research studied social anxiety in 81 sufferers of BodyDysmorphic Disorder & alteration in their social- anxiety with pharmacological treatment. Participants of the study filled the Social Avoidance & Distress Scale (SADS) & were evaluated with respect to Body-dysmorphia symptomology. Candidates in a placebo monitored fluoxetiene test finished at base-line & end-point. Social anxiety was considerably correlative with body-dysmorphia severity. Social anxiety didn’t get better with fluoxeitene compared to placebo; however it did improve considerably more in fluoxeitene responders than in non-responders.

Phillips, Siniscalchi & McElroy (2004) This study involved 75 out-patients suffering from DSM-IV Body-dysmorphic Disorder finish the Symptom Questionnaire with standardized self report scales covering a number of important aspects related to BDD. The results were compared to published norms for normal subjects & psychiatric outpatients. Participants in an open-label fluvoxamine test finished the Symptom Questionnaire near base-line & end-point. In comparison to usual controls, Body-Dysmorphic patients had significantly increased the scores on all scales, showing intense distress & psychological pathology. Results on all of them markedly lowered with fluvoxamine. The research concluded that people with Body-Dysmorphic Disorder have significantly increased degrees of distress & have unsatisfactory wellness in the areas of depression, anxiety, somatic-symptoms, & anger hostility. These side effects altogether got better with the use of fluvoxamine.

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Phillips, Dufresne Jr, Wilkel & Vittorio (2000) The research showed the percent of patients looking for dermatological treatments who showed positive for BodyDysmorphic Disorder. A self-reporting questionnaire & defect severity scales were put into use to establish the rate of body-dysmorphia in 268 participants. Results showed that a total of 11.9% of participants showed positive for BDD. The research concluded that Body-dysmorphic Disorder seems common among patients indulging in dermatological therapies.

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Body Dysmorphic Disorder Literature Review. (2024, January 31). GradesFixer. Retrieved May 30, 2024, from
“Body Dysmorphic Disorder Literature Review.” GradesFixer, 31 Jan. 2024,
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