Pssst… we can write an original essay just for you.
Any subject. Any type of essay.
We’ll even meet a 3-hour deadline.
121 writers online
Experiment no: -7
Aim: -To implementr case study on GSM.
GSM is a standard developed by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute to describe the protocols for 2g digital cellular networks used by mobile devices such as smart phones,tablets.
The GSM network can be broadly divided into four category:
Base-Station Subsystem (BSS)
Network and Switching Subsystem (NSS)
Operation and Support Subsystem (OSS)
Simplified GSM Network Architecture Diagram
Mobile stations (MS), mobile equipment (ME) or as they are most widely known, cell or mobile phones are the section of a GSM cellular network that the user sees and operates. In recent years their size has fallen dramatically while the level of functionality has greatly increased. A further advantage is that the time between charges has significantly increased. There are a number of elements to the cell phone, although the two main elements are the main hardware and the SIM.
The hardware itself contains the main elements of the mobile phone including the display, case, battery, and the electronics used to generate the signal, and process the data receiver and to be transmitted. It also contains a number known as the International Mobile Equipment Identity (IMEI). This is installed in the phone at manufacture and “cannot” be changed. It is accessed by the network during registration to check whether the equipment has been reported as stolen. The SIM or Subscriber Identity Module contains the information that provides the identity of the user to the network. It contains are variety of information including a number known as the International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI).
Base Station Subsystem (BSS)
The BSS is composed of two parts:
The Base Transceiver Station (BTS)
The Base Station Controller (BSC)
The BTS and the BSC communicate across the specified Abis interface, enabling operations between components that are made by different suppliers. The radio components of a BSS may consist of four to seven or nine cells. A BSS may have one or more base stations. The BSS uses the Abis interface between the BTS and the BSC. A separate high-speed line (T1 or E1) is then connected from the BSS to the Mobile MSC. The Base Transceiver Station (BTS) The BTS houses the radio transceivers that define a cell and handles the radio link protocols with the MS. In a large urban area, a large number of BTSs may be deployed. The BTS corresponds to the transceivers and antennas used in each cell of the network. A BTS is usually placed in the center of a cell. Its transmitting power defines the size of a cell. Each BTS has between 1 and 16 transceivers, depending on the density of users in the cell. Each BTS serves as a single cell. It also includes the following functions:
The Base Station Controller (BSC)
The BSC manages the radio resources for one or more BTSs. It handles radio channel setup, frequency hopping, and handovers. The BSC is the connection between the mobile and the MSC. The BSC also translates the 13 Kbps voice channel used over the radio link to the standard 64 Kbps channel used by the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSDN) or ISDN. It assigns and releases frequencies and time slots for the MS. The BSC also handles intercell handover. It controls the power transmission of the BSS and MS in its area. The function of the BSC is to allocate the necessary time slots between the BTS and the MSC. It is a switching device that handles the radio resources. Additional functions include:
Network Switching Subsystem (NSS)
The GSM system architecture contains a variety of different elements, and is often termed the core network. It provides the main control and interfacing for the whole mobile network. The major elements within the core network include:
Mobile Services Switching Centre (MSC):
The main element within the core network area of the overall GSM network architecture is the Mobile switching Services Centre (MSC). The MSC acts like a normal switching node within a PSTN or ISDN, but also provides additional functionality to enable the requirements of a mobile user to be supported. These include registration, authentication, call location, inter-MSC handovers and call routing to a mobile subscriber. It also provides an interface to the PSTN so that calls can be routed from the mobile network to a phone connected to a landline. Interfaces to other MSCs are provided to enable calls to be made to mobiles on different networks.
Home Location Register (HLR):
This database contains all the administrative information about each subscriber along with their last known location. In this way, the GSM network is able to route calls to the relevant base station for the MS. When a user switches on their phone, the phone registers with the network and from this it is possible to determine which BTS it communicates with so that incoming calls can be routed appropriately. Even when the phone is not active (but switched on) it re-registers periodically to ensure that the network (HLR) is aware of its latest position. There is one HLR per network, although it may be distributed across various sub-centres to for operational reasons.
Visitor Location Register (VLR):
This contains selected information from the HLR that enables the selected services for the individual subscriber to be provided. The VLR can be implemented as a separate entity, but it is commonly realised as an integral part of the MSC, rather than a separate entity. In this way access is made faster and more convenient.
Equipment Identity Register (EIR):
The EIR is the entity that decides whether a given mobile equipment may be allowed onto the network. Each mobile equipment has a number known as the International Mobile Equipment Identity. This number, as mentioned above, is installed in the equipment and is checked by the network during registration. Dependent upon the information held in the EIR, the mobile may be allocated one of three states – allowed onto the network, barred access, or monitored in case its problems.
Authentication Centre (AuC):
The AuC is a protected database that contains the secret key also contained in the user’s SIM card. It is used for authentication and for ciphering on the radio channel.
Gateway Mobile Switching Centre (GMSC):
The GMSC is the point to which a ME terminating call is initially routed, without any knowledge of the MS’s location. The GMSC is thus in charge of obtaining the MSRN (Mobile Station Roaming Number) from the HLR based on the MSISDN (Mobile Station ISDN number, the “directory number” of a MS) and routing the call to the correct visited MSC. The “MSC” part of the term GMSC is misleading, since the gateway operation does not require any linking to an MSC.
SMS Gateway (SMS-G):
The SMS-G or SMS gateway is the term that is used to collectively describe the two Short Message Services Gateways defined in the GSM standards. The two gateways handle messages directed in different directions. The SMS-GMSC (Short Message Service Gateway Mobile Switching Centre) is for short messages being sent to an ME. The SMS-IWMSC (Short Message Service Inter-Working Mobile Switching Centre) is used for short messages originated with a mobile on that network. The SMS-GMSC role is similar to that of the GMSC, whereas the SMS-IWMSC provides a fixed access point to the Short Message Service Centre.
Operation and Support Subsystem (OSS)
The OSS or operation support subsystem is an element within the overall GSM network architecture that is connected to components of the NSS and the BSC. It is used to control and monitor the overall GSM network and it is also used to control the traffic load of the BSS. It must be noted that as the number of BS increases with the scaling of the subscriber population some of the maintenance tasks are transferred to the BTS, allowing savings in the cost of ownership of the system.
We provide you with original essay samples, perfect formatting and styling
To export a reference to this article please select a referencing style below:
Sorry, copying is not allowed on our website. If you’d like this or any other sample, we’ll happily email it to you.
Attention! this essay is not unique. You can get 100% plagiarism FREE essay in 30sec
Sorry, we cannot unicalize this essay. You can order Unique paper and our professionals Rewrite it for you
Your essay sample has been sent.
Want us to write one just for you? We can custom edit this essay into an original, 100% plagiarism free essay.Order now
Are you interested in getting a customized paper?Check it out!