Drug Addiction and Its Reinforcement

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About this sample


Words: 1198 |

Pages: 3|

6 min read

Published: Mar 18, 2021

Words: 1198|Pages: 3|6 min read

Published: Mar 18, 2021

Table of contents

  1. Positive Reinforcement
  2. Negative Reinforcement
  3. Conclusion

Many people are a witness to some reasonably addiction. Addiction comes in several shapes and forms. As an example, somebody are often captivated with are often medication, alcohol, sex, technology, cigarettes etc. The brain is one amongst the most parts that plays a massive half in addiction. Since the day I entered this world, I actually have full-fledged addiction. I actually have not full-fledged in person, however I actually have had the rare chance to watch addiction. People that suffer from this weakness can't be classified during a whole. Drug addiction doesn't have an effect on a particular demographic; folks from all walks of life area unit in danger and therefore the addiction will most quite get them high.

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The term addiction derives from the Latin word addicere, “to sentence.” Addictive drugs are those whose effects are so dominating that some people who are displayed to them are not able to live without taking them. It is not necessary that all the people who are exposed to drugs are become addicted to them. And the mostly addictive drugs are derived from plants. This plant uses them as a protection against insects or other animals that otherwise would eat them, but it is also found that chemists have synthesized many other drugs that have even more effects. Many years ago, people had found that there are many substances found in nature primarily in leaves, seeds, and roots of plants And Also in some animal products had medicinal qualities. They discovered herbs that helped to prevent infections that help in healing that used in upset stomach, reducing the pain. Also help people in sleeping. They also found some “recreational drugs” these are the drugs that produced pleasurable effects when eaten, drunk, or smoked. They are also use in stress, anxiety, or depression. It is not important that only illegal drugs, such as cocaine or heroin that can cause the addiction. Some other painkillers, antidepressants, sleeping pills can also cause the addiction. Even it is also proved that marijuana use as painkiller is most addictive drug in US. Any type of drug either illegal or prescription they doesn’t automatically cause the addiction. Some people are capable of using the prescribed drugs without experiencing any kind of negative effects, while others find that same substance as a serious toll on their health and well-being. The addiction is depend on consequences on which that drugs are use, it is not generally depends on the dose of the drug or amount of drug. Anyone can develop addiction and problems from using drugs; degree to substance addiction differs from person to other person. And the person’s genes, their amental health, their family and social environment play a role in it. It also depends on family history of drug, mental disorders such as depression and anxiety, and method of administration also matters.

Positive Reinforcement

The positive reinforcement model acknowledges that though physiological withdrawal from the consequences of abuse could play a crucial role in relapse following short term abstinence, it fails to account for relapse once long term abstinence. Moreover, it additionally doesn’t justify the pathological “wanting” that continues to be gift even in people who are abstinent for several years. In step with one distinguished positive reinforcement model, the inducement Sensitisation (IS) Model (1), addiction is that the results of neural sensitisation of reward circuits (centred within the ventral striate body (VS)) by the neurochemical monoamine neurotransmitter. Positive reinforcement mechanisms cause a non-associative learning method, named as sensitization, within which perennial confrontation with a substance-related cue (which acts as a reinforce) ends up in the progressive amplification of a response (substance seeking). This ‘sensitisation’ or hypersensitivity is also free lance of negative withdrawal symptoms or associate degree individual’s general negative spirit and ends up in compulsive substance-seeking and substance-taking. These mechanisms of positive reinforcement leave addicts at risk of relapse once confronted by substance-related cues that trigger a pathological “wanting”, as more and more distinct from initial reward-linked “liking”.

Drug addiction is progressively viewed because the end point of a series of transitions from initial drug use — when a drug is voluntarily taken as a result of its reinforcing, typically epicurean, effects — through loss of management over this behavior, such it becomes habitual and ultimately compulsive. Here we have a tendency to discuss proof that these transitions depend upon interactions between physiologist and instrumental learning processes. We have a tendency to theorise that the amendment from voluntary drug use to additional habitual and compulsive drug use represents a transition at the neural level from anterior animal tissue to striate management over drug seeking and drug taking behaviour additionally as a progression from ventral to additional dorsal domains of the corpus striatum, involving its dopaminergic innervations. These neural transitions might themselves depend upon the neuroplasticity in each animal tissue and striated structures that are elicited by chronic self-administration of medicine.

Negative Reinforcement

Negative reinforcement may be a thought developed by scientist B.F. Skinner to part make a case for human behaviour. Skinner believed that an individual can repeat a behaviour if it's strengthened in a very negative manner. This can be not constant as penalty. A penalty stops behaviour. A negative reinforcement keeps an exact behaviour going. For instance, an occasional grade may be a negative reinforcement for finding out for a take a look at, a high grade may be a reward for finding out, and an occasional grade may be a penalty for not finding out. Negative reinforcement isn't constant as penalty. In fact, the 2 ideas square measure polar opposites. Penalty may be a procedure that decreases the likelihood that a selected response can occur. Negative reinforcement, on the opposite hand, means that the stop of adverse stimulation, that thereby will increase the chance of a selected response. Within the addiction context, negative reinforcement happens throughout withdrawal. For example, once a fan is experiencing painful withdrawal effects, reducing the pain by taking additional of the drug negatively reinforces continuation of abuse so as to avoid constant withdrawal effects. In another example, negative reinforcement is once a sick addict begins to hold out once more with friends who once helped alter him/her to abuse medicine. The unendurable loneliness he/she is knowledgeable about on his own is that the adverse stimulation and, once this sense goes away once rejoining the cluster, there can be less of an opportunity that the person will build another break from these friends.

Drug addiction is related to the activation of reward neural electronic equipment, however I argue that white plague additionally involves another major supply of reinforcement, specifically negative reinforcement driven by the ‘dark side’ (i.e., a decrease within the perform of traditional reward-related neurocircuitry and chronic achievement of the brain stress systems). This mixture forms the antireward system or ‘darkness inside.’ Understanding the neuroplasticity of the neurocircuitry that contains the negative reinforcement related to addiction is that the key to understanding the vulnerability to the transition to addiction, misery of addiction, and persistence of addiction.

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To conclude the essay, the effects of drug addiction are varied inflicting physical, psychological, economic, and social issues. Effective treatment involves a multidisciplinary approach within which health, education, welfare, community, and family elements ought to all be incorporated.

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Drug Addiction And Its Reinforcement. (2021, March 18). GradesFixer. Retrieved July 18, 2024, from
“Drug Addiction And Its Reinforcement.” GradesFixer, 18 Mar. 2021,
Drug Addiction And Its Reinforcement. [online]. Available at: <> [Accessed 18 Jul. 2024].
Drug Addiction And Its Reinforcement [Internet]. GradesFixer. 2021 Mar 18 [cited 2024 Jul 18]. Available from:
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