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Eartha Mary Magdalene White

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Eartha Mary Magdalene White, a well-known African American and a resident of Jacksonville, Florida, was widely known for her humanitarian and philanthropic endeavors. White was born in Jacksonville, Florida, on November 8, 1876. Her Mother died after childbirth, at a very young age, she was adopted by Lafayette and Clara English White.

White began her education at the Stanton School in Jacksonville, now known as Stanton College Preparatory School. Upon graduation in 1893, she moved to New York City, mainly because of the yellow fever quarantine, where she attended the Madam Hall Beauty School and Madame Thurber’s National Conservatory of Music. The latter affiliation led to a position with the Oriental American Opera Company, the first African American opera company. She sang soprano under the direction of J. Rosamond Johnson. After a highly successful opening on Broadway, the troupe toured for a year throughout the United States and Europe.

Upon returning to Florida at age twenty, White continued her education at Florida Baptist Academy in Naples, Florida, graduating in 1898 with a teaching degree. Upon graduation, White engaged in her first endeavor. She built the first public school for black children in Bayard, Florida. she persuaded Bartolo Genovar to donate the land and lumber. She taught there for sixteen years as she taught at The Stanton School in Jacksonville.

White also became a successful entrepreneur, managing several businesses including a dry goods store, an employment and housecleaning bureau, a taxi company, and a steam laundry. She also became a licensed real estate broker, the first woman employee of the Afro-American Life Insurance Company in Jacksonville, and a charter member of the National Negro Business League and the Jacksonville Business League.

Although it is estimated that she became a millionaire, she donated much of her wealth to finance her humanitarian work. Her works includes the following creating Oakland Park, the first public park in Jacksonville for black people, founding the Boy’s Improvement Club; establishing an orphanage for African American children, a home for unwed mothers, and a nursery for children of working mothers. She also worked with prison inmates and founded the Colored Citizens Protective League.

In 1904 Mary and her mother, Clara White, established the Clara White Mission which fed the homeless and hungry in the Jacksonville community. After her mother’s death in 1920, Mary continued the work of the mission which at one point was Jacksonville’s largest employer of black people. During World War II, White worked in the Women’s National Defense Program.

She also donated a building and provided American Red Cross services to enlisted men. In 1967 at the age of ninety-one, she established a one hundred and twenty-five bed facility for welfare patients called the Eartha M. M. White Nursing Home in Jacksonville. Among White’s many accolades were an honorary doctor of law degree from Edward Waters College, an honorary doctor of humanities from Florida Memorial Institute

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