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Egypt Grand Challenges: Urban Congestion

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The urban congestion is big problem in Egypt and the Egyptian government is trying to find solution for this problem. Urban congestion is in the big cities and it happens if many people lived in one city. It causes many problems in Egypt as the spread of diseases due to the large number of people, this also causes deterioration in the public health where governmental hospitals become very busy with the large number of patients due to the increase of the population in a specific place. It also causes air, sound, water, etc. pollution. So, when we talk about urban congestion in Egypt we must talk about urban congestion in Cairo.

There is a big difference in urban congestion between cities as we can see that there is 7, 734, 614 people in Cairo, but in Suhag there is 209, 419 people. Cairo has the largest population and it is the third Islamic city in the world in population. So, what are the causes of The Urban Congestion in Egypt?

  1. The Internal Migration: It is the movement of people from their residence to another one in the same country in order to the permanent residence. This plays an important role in the distribution of population the country. For example, Marriage as 42% of immigrants migrate due to the marriage. And it was expected that the number of female immigrants is more than the male immigrants for that reason (59%:19% respectively); that’s because the wife goes to the residence of her husband.
  2. Economic causes: As most people prefer leaving a rental residence into own purchased dwelling.
  3. Housing: Some people are driven to change their residence and move to another one due to the shortage of space or the huge unused space in their homes.
  4. Employment causes: Some people leave their residence and move to another one for a better work and better social level.
  5. Education: Many college students have to move to another city for a better university, for example: some college students in Suhag or Asyut go to Cairo or Giza to participate in a better university such as Ain-Shams or Cairo university.

The impacts of urban congestion

Approximately 8 billion $ is lost every year in greater Cairo due to the traffic congestion and this represents 3. 6% of Egypt’s GPD and this makes solving the traffic congestion in Cairo and big cities in Egypt a top priority. This is according to the world bank study released in this summer as shown in graph (2):In comparison, New York loses 10 billion $ a year because of the wasted fuel only, this represents 0. 07 of American GPD while Jakarta 5 billion $ a year which represents 0. 6% of Indonesia’s GPD.

Most people depend on their cars due to the Busy buses and expensive Taxis, people depend on cars also because they are the easiest way for them to reach their destination. This is due to the unorganized transportation system specially for buses. Depending on cars also cause limited parking space in streets because everyone wants a near parking area which makes the space for the moving cars cramped. There is only about 1, 500 and 70km of metro lines in Cairo where there is no Bus Rapid Transmit (BRT) System and there is a strong public demand for Developing the public transport in Cairo, as the Metro line.

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