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Heavy Metal Detection from Drinking Water of District Pishin (balochistan, Pakistan) by Using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry

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Abstract

This study was designed to find out heavy metals contents from water samples that taken from tube wells and from different areas of district pishin. The analysis of different water samples done to check out the parameters such as electric conductivity, PH, burden of population that uses fertilizers in chosen area. According to this analysis process it is determined that the age of tube wells never affect the quantity of heavy metal. Heavy metals such as Antimony and Aluminum are present in greater content then standardized values. The presence of arsenic in drinking water is due to anthropogenic activities that performed near the tube wells (chemical industries) Introduction:· Area description:District Pishin is an area of Baluchistan province, due to the climatic conditions the temperature in winter season reach below freezing point and in summer temperature reach at 40 degree calicoes. This area is located 5104 feet above sea level. Pishin is famous because of its agricultural products. In this area process of irrigation is done by using water from artificial channels (boring holes) the most common source of ground water in pishin district is tube well and karez system.·

Water and Heavy Metals

Pure quality of drinking water is fundamental need for good health. Pure water gives us essential mineral but when the water is contaminated it cause diseases such as cancer, Reproductive disorders, cardiovascular and neurological disorders. Heavy metals contamination mostly affects infants and younger population because of their developmental stage. Due to higher sensitivity in children’s heavy metals cause various disorders in children’s such as uncontrolled temperament, sub consciousness and hyperactivity. They consume more metals from food products because of higher heavy metal contamination in food. Heavy metals such as Arsenic and its compounds that are released from different chemical industries are toxic to human health (Choudhury et al., 2009).Antimony exposure lead cardiovascular disorder. According to EPA lead is carcinogenic to human health. Lead Exposure leads respiratory disorder there is high .Tap water is more contaminated due to lead (ASTDR, 2000).Aluminum (Al) is third most abundant element of earth crust. Al accumulation in body cells lead neurological disorders (Richard,1993). According to EPA excess amount of essential metal in water leads different disorder while Cu,Zn,Cr are essentially required to human body(Goyer and Clarkson, 2001).·

Materials and Methods

The aim of this study is to assess cluster of metals such as (Pb, Sb, Al, As) to find out water sample Ph and Conductivity and also to evaluate the impacts of heavy metals on human health.· Sample collection: Fifty (50) water samples collected from twelve villages of district Pishin. Sample was collected in polythene bottles and labeled. Each sample assorted with 4m of nitric acid (Michael, 1982; APHA, et al., 1992).· Sample Analysis: PH meter used to determine the ph of each sample (JENWAY MODEL NO. 3520).conductivity meter use to determine electric conductivity (JENWAY MODEL No. 470). Heavy metal contaminants concentration determined with flame Atomic Absorption spectroscopy with Acetylene or nitrous oxides (Michael, 1982).·

Lamp current

The current for lamp is operating in mA. It is necessary that you have confirm the presence of lamp before completing this step, because 30 mA current can damage lamp. The amplifier will be set spontaneously when current detected by lamp. Replicates: Each quantification should be repeated thrice that can be change according to requirements. The replicates range from 1 to 99.· Standard Reagent Preparation: For analysis process three different standard reagents prepared, of concentrations that given below,· Arsenic· Lead· Antimony· Aluminum·

Results and conclusions

Water sample obtained from different locations of district pishin are analyzed to find out the heavy metals content. The present amount of metals compared with different parameters to get general information about water quality the average PH of whole samples is 3.38 respectively. All the samples have optimal PH except the sample collected from Nawabad with PH 8.69. Electric conductivity gives measures to determine electrolyte concentration and minerals that present in water. Electrical conductivity or all samples normally estimated from 50 to 500Us/cm. age of tube wells determined through concentrations of heavy metals that present in water. The calculated age of all tube well was 4 year. The depth of wells that calculated was 157 meters. Arsenic and lead presence determined in each sample but les then that amount (given by WHO).

The concentration of Aluminum from each sample found greater than standardized values in tube wells with lower depth and found lesser amount in tube wells with higher depth.· The concentration of antimony from each collected sample found greater than WHO standardized value. The mean concentration of antimony from each sample sweep from 0.277-1.021mg/l. Through analysis it was concluded that with the increase in depth antimony concentration decreases. The calculated concentration of Aluminum compared with tube well age of all samples equal to the tube well age. Tube wells with less age have less concentration of Aluminum. The concentration of lead calculated inversely proportional to tube well age, tube well with les age contains higher concentration of lead while with greater age contain less concentration of lead. The concentration of antimony obtained is equal in each sample and there is no significant changes observed. Aluminum concentration of samples that collected from different locations contain different concentrations. Aluminum concentrations depend on water turbidity and soil type present in those areas.

References

  1. ATSDR. 2000. Case Studies in Environmental Medicine.LeadToxicity. U.S. Department of Healthand Human Services, Atlanta, GA, Pp.31-33·
  2. APHA, AWWA and WEF, D.E. 1992. Standard methods for the Examination of water and waste water. American public Health Association, American water work Associatiom and Water Environmental Federation, 18 The Edition, Washington, DC.Pp.11-19.·
  3. Choudhury, R. Q., T.S. Shaikh, R Alam, R. Sen, J. Hasan, and I.A. Chowdhur. 2009. Effect of Arsenic Contaminated Irrigation Water on the Cultivation of Red Amaranth. American-Eurasian J. Scientific Res.. 4 (1): pp.14-19.·
  4. Dogan, M., A. U. Dogan, C. Celebi, and Y.I. Baris. 2005. Indoor Built Environ, Vol.14 (6): pp.533-536.·
  5. Goyer, R.A., and T.M. Clarkson. 2001. Toxic effects of metals.Chapter 23. In: Klaassen,C.D., Casarett&Doull s toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill, pp. 811-868.·
  6. Micheal, J. S., 1982. Physical, chemical & radiological Examination, Vol. 2(170): pp.202-210.· Richard, S. R., 1993.

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Heavy Metal Detection from Drinking Water of District Pishin (Balochistan, Pakistan) by Using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. (2019, November 26). GradesFixer. Retrieved September 24, 2022, from https://gradesfixer.com/free-essay-examples/heavy-metal-detection-from-drinking-water-of-district-pishin-balochistan-pakistan-by-using-atomic-absorption-spectrometry/
“Heavy Metal Detection from Drinking Water of District Pishin (Balochistan, Pakistan) by Using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry.” GradesFixer, 26 Nov. 2019, gradesfixer.com/free-essay-examples/heavy-metal-detection-from-drinking-water-of-district-pishin-balochistan-pakistan-by-using-atomic-absorption-spectrometry/
Heavy Metal Detection from Drinking Water of District Pishin (Balochistan, Pakistan) by Using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. [online]. Available at: <https://gradesfixer.com/free-essay-examples/heavy-metal-detection-from-drinking-water-of-district-pishin-balochistan-pakistan-by-using-atomic-absorption-spectrometry/> [Accessed 24 Sept. 2022].
Heavy Metal Detection from Drinking Water of District Pishin (Balochistan, Pakistan) by Using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry [Internet]. GradesFixer. 2019 Nov 26 [cited 2022 Sept 24]. Available from: https://gradesfixer.com/free-essay-examples/heavy-metal-detection-from-drinking-water-of-district-pishin-balochistan-pakistan-by-using-atomic-absorption-spectrometry/
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