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Genetically modified organisms are organisms with changed genetic structure. Nowadays GMO are one of the main debatable question in the modern world. Every day we buy vegetables and fruits in our shops or markets, but we do not know, if they were cultivated by using genetically modified organisms or naturally. Because today the majority of farmers use pesticides and herbicides for cultivating many products. It is still unknown whether they are helpful for human life or not. But we can definitely say, that GMO are harmful for agriculture. There are a lot of reasons, which indicate on it.
Firstly, the cultivation of GM crops leads to violation of circulation of substances in nature. The Morrissey’s research showed, that GM strains (subtype of a micro-organism (e.g., virus or bacterium or fungus)) from GM crops remained in the soil for years after the crop was removed. Of course, it is breaks the interaction of substances in nature.
Secondly, GMO are also responsible for the emergence of herbicide resistant “super weeds”. It means , that “super weeds” can only be killed with more toxic poisons, which blight the soil. connected with soil degradation. It is a cause of soil degradation.
The third reason is growth of toxic herbicides in soil. As a result of increasing number of toxic , use of toxic herbicides like Roundup has increased 16 times since GMOs were introduced in “GMO Facts”(2015 ).
All this toxic chemicals, such as pesticides and herbicides have negative affect on the soil. Moreover, pesticides accumulate in foodstuffs, which we can buy in our shops. Unfortunately, we do not know which foreign gene contained in product. And probably this heterogeneous (incongruous) gene will be rejected by the body.
Another reason is reduction of insects. Insects pollinate many of our fruits, flowers, and vegetables. We would not have much of the produce without the pollinating services of insects, not to mention honey, beeswax, silk, and other useful products. But cultivation of GM crops with using chemical substances leads to mass poisoning of insects.
Eventually, we must know that agriculture is a system with an expiration date.
Researching the reasons, which were listed above, we may come to admission that GMO creates a lot of negative consequences.
First of all, Pesticides destroy nitrogen fixation. This can lead to a large decline of crop yields because application of pesticides can destroy pollinators .Decrease in number of spiders after application of insecticide chlorpyrifos has been reported on grassland pasture in UK(2007). It is importantly to know that pesticides are the main reason of contraction of insects . Unfortunately, herbicides doesn’t kill only harmful insects. For example, Monarch butterfly living area have reduced an alarming 90% in the past 20 year because their habitat(Mexico)has declined from 45 acres to just 1.7 acres between 1999-2013 by Edward (2015).
GMO change DNA structer. Fungicides are toxic to soil fungi because they cause the changes in microbial community structure. ( Liebich et al., 20034;Pal et al.,20055).
Generally, GMO have negative consequences on human’s organism too, because they cause allergies and development of diseases. According to the information of the 3 modern university studies, spanning up to 14 years, have proven Chlorpyrifos( type of pesticides) causes damage of organs, mental disorders, learning disabilities and effects on IQ(Edward, 2015).Moreover , according to Brown University (Kantor,2010)genetically modificated herbicides often contain proteins which cause new mutants.
Pesticides poison water. High level of chlordecone pesticide was detected in coastline and groundwater in the Caribbean island of Martinique as a result of the massive application on bananas plantations(Bocquene and Franco,2005).
Talking about further consequences, we can predict that GMOs will always provide a stable and efficient way to maintain enough crops to feed the ever growing population of people.
Unfortunately, despite of the harm of GM crops they are used in very big amounts all over the world. Moreover, such kinds of genetically modifications are spread not only between large farms, gardens and fields which provide resources to big firms, but also between little households or private agricultural objects. It means that takes a very big significance not only in global but also in certain national agriculture. In other words the majority of people who has gardens use pesticides and herbicides. Others who do not cultivate fruits and vegetables by themselves and who buy these products in market often do not pay attention to the way how their food has been grown. In order to explore the national perspective there has been created a survey. Analyzing its results it can be seen that only 60 % of respondents know how their vegetables and fruits were cultivate. Moreover 70.1 % of people said that they are against to GM crops. However, at the same time 70.4 % of respondents consider GMO as necessary thing for agriculture. Therefore, it can be concluded that the majority of people in Taraz think that GMO is harmful for agriculture. Generally, Kazakhstan does not use GM crops in big amounts because it is not profitable. Furthermore, there are only few types of GM crops that are used in this country. The problem of GM crops is more significant in other, more developed countries. For example there is the law in France that prohibits farmers to grow the GM crops, but Germany government is still discussing the importance of GMO in agriculture. Nevertheless, the benefits of GM crops cannot acquit its using because of large amount of harm.
Before our research we thought that GMO products help to solve problem with hunger and poverty in poor countries but, after research we take information that GMO products causes harmful affect for people health. We can search any way’s to solving problem with hunger without GM. Our scientific achievements can create a new way of cultivation organic products that replace GMO. Inorganic parts of GM foods can stay at stomach that destroy human immunity and digestion function will lead to dearth .By people’s help together we can attain to big vertices.
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