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This paper identifies the proper methods and procedures used to obtain clear data proving our hypothesis that carbon dioxide levels increase as you add a yeast enzyme to a glucose substrate. The data in the paper shows correlation; specifically that over time carbon dioxide levels rise. The causation in the paper can be deduced by the independent variable, meaning the more yeast in the mixture, the more carbon dioxide. This causation is absolute due to our precision during the process of the experiment, and it also contains sources from the Columbia University Press’s online encyclopedia, the Journal of Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, and the Journal of the Institute of Brewing.
INTRODUCTION: “Fermentation, process by which the living cell is able to obtain energy through the breakdown of glucose and other simple sugar molecules without requiring oxygen.” (Columbia 2016) In this lab, the researchers will experiment with the levels yeast in a mixture of distilled water and glucose. With yeast being the independent variable, researchers will manipulate the amount of yeast in each mixture, while measuring the amount of carbon dioxide. Researchers will hypothesize what the data will prove, and conclude with whether their hypothesis was proved correct or disproved.
“Aristotle believed that grape juice was an infantile form of wine and that fermentation was, therefore, the maturation of the grape extract. Interest in the process of fermentation has continued through the ages, and much of modern biochemistry, especially enzyme studies, has emerged directly from the early studies on the fermentation process.” (Columbia 2016) Fermentation is also a key process in many modern industries, such that “One of the keys to obtaining better control over flavour formation may be the concentration of dissolved carbon dioxide, which has inhibitory effects on yeast growth and metabolism” (Shen 2003)
Lastly, regarding the amount of glucose. “Glucose repression is the effect conferred by high concentrations of glucose on many strains of Saccharomyces yeasts which renders various substrate utilizing systems inactive.” (Cambridge 1992)
Our hypothesis was that the more yeast enzyme [independent variable] is added, the more carbon dioxide each tube will produce. The independent variable being tested was the yeast enzyme, and the dependent variable was the carbon dioxide each tube produced, measured in centimeters.
The control group is test tube #1, which contained no yeast. There were four constant variables, those being time, the temperature of the hot water bath, the amount of glucose substrate, and the solvent of the mixture, being distilled water.
The end results are as follows [after twenty minutes]: Tube #1 produced no carbon dioxide, Tube #2 produced 2 cm of carbon dioxide, and Tube #3 produced 10 cm carbon dioxide.
Table 2: Incubation time (minutes)
Table 3: Carbon Dioxide v. Time
CONCLUSION: The date clearly supported the hypothesis. We hypothesized that the more yeast was added, the more carbon dioxide would be produced. As seen in table 3, the higher the yeast levels, the more carbon dioxide was produced. As seen also in the data after 20 minutes, tube #3 (3ml yeast) producing almost 5 times what was produced in tube #2 with only 1ml yeast.
Given the experimental conditions tested, the only way the carbon dioxide levels could vary is due to the amount of yeast. With 3 ml glucose substrate per tube it is clear that the reaction that took place increased when more yeast was added.
There were no unexpected results, the data matched perfectly with our hypothesis, and everything went as planned. There were also no foul ups, we followed instruction precisely.
If we were to repeat the experiment, I would use consistent distilled water levels in each of the test tubes, I would also experiment with ways to measure carbon dioxide output, such as PSI, MOL, or CM3, and lastly I would increase the span of time the experiment was conducted.
Yeast fermentation is crucial in the production of alcoholic beverages, something cultures around the world have been perfecting for centuries even “Aristotle believed that grape juice was an infantile form of wine and that fermentation was therefore, the maturation of the grape extract” (Columbia 2016). Our results show just how little was known about fermentation in the old world.
Other researchers have studied not only the history of the fermentation process, (Columbia 2016), but also how to improve the performance of the yeast enzyme fermentation performance the most relevant research found is pertaining to beer flavors, where researchers hypothesized that “one of the keys to obtaining better control over flavour formation may be the concentration of dissolved carbon dioxide” (Shen 2003)
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