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Eye tracking research plays a key role in understanding how individuals view and perceive the world around them. The scientific study of human eye movement provides an insight into the cognitive thought processes and has been established in research domains such as developmental psychology, human-computer interaction and reading research. Reading disability is a serious life-long condition that negatively affects schooling, employment, health status, and represents a public health problem. Although it is generally agreed that early intervention is the best form of support for people with reading disabilities, there is still a lack of efficient and objective means to help identify those at risk during the early years of education. The current screening methods, which rely on oral or written tests, will not help the detection of disability in an efficient manner. Eye tracking does not depend on the subject to produce some overt verbal response and thus provides a natural means to objectively assess the reading process as it is in real-time. In this project investigation on the use of human computer interaction for identifying readers at risk of long-term reading difficulties and how people with reading disabilities can be supported to develop the appropriate strategies to utilize each technology in a purposeful and effective manner.
Human Computer Interaction concentrates on the interactions between human and computer systems, including the user interface and the underlying processes which produce the interactions. The area where human computer interaction focuses include computer science, cognitive science, human factors, software engineering, management science, psychology, sociology. Research and development in human-computer interaction focused on issues directly related to the user interface early. Now a days the field of human-computer interaction has changed and become more directed to the processes and context for the user interface. Functionality of a system is defined by the set of actions or services that it gives to its users. The value of services is visible only when it becomes possible to be efficiently utilized by the user.
The flying growth of computing has made effective human-computer interaction essential. Human-Computer Interaction is the study of how people interact with computer systems and to what extent computers are or are not developed for successful interaction with human beings. Take advantage of computers had always begged the question of interfacing. The methods by which human has been interacting with computers has progressed a long way. The developments still continues and new designs of technologies and systems appear more and more every day and the research in this area has been growing very fast in the last few decades. The development in Human- Computer Interaction (HCI) field has not only been in quality of interaction, it has also experienced different branching in its history.
Gustav Evertsson describes Human Computer Interaction is about designing computer systems so the user can carry out their activities productively and safely. The focus, it is not how easy something is to use, it is about how usable it is. Or, a broader definition of HCI is ― Human Computer Interaction is a discipline concerned with the design, evaluation and implementation of interactive computer systems for human use and with the study of major phenomena surrounding them HCI consists of three parts: the computer itself, the user, and the ways they work together. The achievements of HCI are to produce safe and usable systems, as well as functional systems. Making systems easy to learn and easy to use is concerned with Usability. Designing the computer system for the people and not the people for the computers is all about HCI design. The user activity has three different levels: physical, cognitive, and affective. The physical characteristics directs the mechanics of interaction between human and computer while the cognitive aspect deals with ways that users can understand the system and interact with it. The current physical technologies for Human Computer Interaction basically can be categorized by the relative human sense that the device is designed for. The designed devices are basically relying on three human senses: vision, audition, and touch. Human–computer interaction (HCI) is a cross-disciplinary area that deals with the theory, design, implementation, and evaluation of the ways that humans use and interact with computing devices. Interaction is a concept to be distinguished from another similar term, called interface. Reading is important to the academic, economic, and social success of children. To identify children at risk for reading difficulties and children who have unexpected difficulties in learning to read can be done using human computer interaction. Early recognition and timely remediation for such children improve long-term outcome. Reading disabilities may include problems with:
Reading is essential to success in our society. The reading ability is highly value and important for social and economic advancement. Learning disability or specific reading disability is a lifelong neuro developmental disorder which manifest in childhood as persistent difficulties in learning to efficiently read, write or do simple mathematical calculations despite normal intelligence, conventional schooling, intact hearing and vision, adequate motivation and socio-cultural opportunity. Reading is primarily a visual skill, many investigators sought to blame early reading difficulty on some malfunction in the visual domain, such as a tendency to reverse letters or sequences of letters. The proof with respect to IQ and reading disability is a little less clear cut. Learning to read is a complex task that can be expected to correlate with general intellectual abilities. Reading disabled readers consistently do worse than excellent readers on many language tasks. But generally do as well on tasks that do not involve the use of language. In the past decades, many different studies have uncovered some link between early difficulties in learning to read, and difficulties with one or more aspects of spoken language processing. Early reading disability leads to reflect problems in one or both of two areas: language processing and metalinguistic awareness. Although this disorder varies from person to person, common characteristics among people with reading disability are trouble with accurate and fluent reading, spelling, and phonological processing. The eye movement tracking would provide a better understanding of the underlying deficits that potentially contribute to reading difficulties among children with Reading Disability. Eye movement tracking has been used for a variety of purposes including diagnosing disorders related to reading and information processing abilities. When go for diagnostic purposes, eye movement tracking allows for objectivity and provides quantitative data on visual and attentional abilities. Hence, eye movement tracking has great potential as a useful and scientifically valid method for studying patterns of reading for children with Reading Disability. Eye tracking has helped to identify the process of reading a word or a sentence. Reading is an important skill that improves with experience, and becomes increasingly automatic and accurate in early childhood. Nevertheless, some subjects, despite having above average IQ as well as healthy vision and hearing, struggle to become fluent readers, and have great difficulty in fully understanding written text. During childhood, reading disabilities of the dyslexia type, are the most common learning disabilities, and influence student performance in and out of school. Reading disabilities can impact student negatively in academic achievement, self-image, social adaptation, as well as societal attitudes towards affected children. Timely identification and diagnosis of reading disabilities is important to guide intervention and to avoid personal, academic, and social repercussions. Hence, early detection of dyslexia, and other similar reading difficulties, is imperative in order to provide the necessary help to students.
Eye movements are characterized by fixations and saccades. Fixations are the intervals during which the eye remains still. Saccades are very fast movements of the eye that occur between consecutive fixations. Several studies have analysed eye movements of participants during reading. Eye movements varies during reading between typical and dyslexic readers. In this study the eye tracking approach is used as a remediation for the reading disability. Using eye movement tracking classify that the person having reading disability of any level and develop a remediation for that problem. For that need to identify the person with reading disability and for them we have implement a system which uses a reader’s visual scanning pattern of the text to identify, and pronounce, words that the reader is having difficulty recognizing.
Various researchers worked to develop an assistive technology for reading disabled people. Different approaches and methodologies have been proposed in this area. The study focuses on the effectiveness of assistive technology devices and software in helping students with reading disabilities. Assistive technology is described as any device or items that can be used to increase, maintain or improve the capabilities of individuals with disabilities. Traditional strategies used to train poor readers have been effective to some extent. But for specific tasks computer-based strategies perform better. The introduction of technology to this training field has simplified the training process but not all features have been implemented fully. The computer based approaches have proved effective in implementing the traditional methods using a computer. Assistive technology devices and services have major suggestions for individuals with reading disabilities Human-Computer interaction for reading disability has become a major area of research. Zhanna Meland discussed the relationship between auditory speech perception, phonological processing skills, and reading skills. Visual perception in dyslexic people has primarily been examined for reading tasks or in various types of reading and non-reading tasks in the studies of visual attention impairments. The study Examined audiovisual (AV) speech perception deficit in dyslexic readers. The eye-tracking methods were used for the first time to provide conformation of an audiovisual speech perception deficit in dyslexic readers. The method that obtained was the comparison between the basic eye movements, fixation time and number of fixations, during audiovisual speech perception between groups of participants. The study was done for a group of people and it is consider as a limitation of this. Luz Rello, Miguel Ballesteros were tried to develop the first statistical model to predict readers with and without dyslexia using eye tracking measures. Human-computer interaction studies that use eye tracking with people with dyslexia have normally focused in finding the most accessible text presentations. For the Statistical model to classify readers with and without dyslexia they used a Support Vector Machine binary classifier. People with dyslexia as well as beginner readers, make longer fixations, more fixations, shorter saccades and more regressions than readers without dyslexia. The analysis indicates that the age of the users shows clearer differences in their reading performance. Enlarge the dataset by carrying out more eye tracking experiments in different languages were mentioned as future works of the study.
The creation process of a prototype e-Learning system for people with cognitive learning disabilities was done by Grant D. Fryia, al. Human Computer Interaction is particularly focused for people with cognitive and learning disabilities. Fundamental goals of e-Learning are to improve access for all learners, such systems frequently have many features and options which can be too complicated for people with cognitive and learning disabilities. Numerous people with cognitive and learning disabilities experience difficulties with information organization and memory. A study involved adolescents with high functioning autism was conducted to determine which type of interface supports better performance on a game to teach social skills. The learning disability was analyzed using a survey. People with cognitive and learning disabilities often exhibit deficiencies in attention, memory, perception, and problem-solving, which consequently affects the manner in which they interact with computers. In 2005 Julio Abascal is done with an analysis of Human-Computer Interaction in assistive technology. The main goal of this is to help disabled people with the use of Human Computer Interaction. The users who have the disability need interfaces that suit their skills and help them in overcoming physical and cognitive barriers. It is possible to support disabled people to enhance their communication capabilities and to facilitate their independent life by means of computers. The study was given an overall idea about how human computer interface is implementing in assistive technology.
John L. Sibert and MehmetGokturk together proposed a system for remedial reading instruction that uses visually controlled auditory prompting to help the user with recognition and pronunciation of words in 2000. The method included with Eye tracking data is used for find out the coordinates where eyes fixing. The Word selection algorithm is used to trigger pronunciation and highlighting of words. They have implemented a system which uses a reader’s visual scanning pattern of the text to identify, and pronounce, words that the reader is having difficulty recognizing.
Uses eye tracking to trigger synthetic speech feedback as children read text from the monitor Eyetracking data is used for find out the coordinates where eyes fixing. Word selection algorithm to Trigger highlighting and pronunciation of words. A tool to evaluate the effectiveness of visually activated prompting in the context of a remedial reading program. Improve the performance using different parametric approach and use this system regularly in students cognitive activities to get the maximum accurated result Eye movements during audiovisual speech perception with dyslexia Examined audiovisual (AV) speech perception deficit in dyslexic readers. The eye-tracking methods were used for the first time to provide evidence of an AV speech perception deficit in dyslexic readers. The relationship between auditory speech perception, phonological processing skills, and reading skills was tested and discussed.
Syllable identification: The syllable identification task included three blocks; audiovisual in quiet, audiovisual in white noise and visual only. Compared performance of adults with dyslexia with a control group of normal adult readers in AV and visual only speech perception, measured with syllable identification tasks and second, to compared basic eye movements, fixation time and number of fixations, during audiovisual speech perception between these two groups of participants Limitation is that the study is included only university students. Detecting Readers with Dyslexia Using Machine Learning with Eye Tracking Measures Develop the first statistical model to predict readers with and without dyslexia using eye tracking measures. Statistical model to classify readers with and without dyslexia using a Support Vector Machine binary classifier and how eye tracking measures have been studied in relationship with dyslexia. Indicated that the age of the users shows clearer differences in their reading performance. The main problem is the size of the dataset, since having more input data would lead our model to generalize better in those cases. Enlarge the dataset by carrying out more eye tracking experiments in different languages. And try with classifiers, such as perceptron learning, recursive neural networks, or conditional random fields.
Developing a prototype without unnecessary complexities or distractions and by retaining and enhancing those features that arerequired, this type of e-Learning system can meetthe needs of its intended users The creation process of a prototype e-Learning system for people with CLDs, with the goal of alleviating over complexity by reducing the number of features presented to the user at any one time, and by enhancing crucialfeatures, without negatively affecting overall functionality. High degree of usability, and imply that, for user, the interface wouldFacilitate deriving educational benefit from the e-Learning system. Difficult toperform and analyze, large, comparative studies are essential in assessing the efficacy of not only interfaces designed for people with CLDs.
The main objective is to help disabled people with the help of Human Computer Interaction Disabled users need interfaces that suit their skills and assist them in overcoming physical and cognitive barriers. Study of using Human computer interaction in assistive technology. Human computer interaction is analysed in all variance like legal, social and ethical issues, the universal approach and all. Technology and social pressure, can avoid this kind of digital dividebetween people with special needs and standard people. Assistive Technology should evolve towards more general methods and theories. Assistive technology as an HCI topic Introduce assistive technology from the perspective of HCI Defining how HCI was helping the disabled people in different modalities as an assistive technology HCI was showing a growing development in assistive technology Mention the review overall on the topic assistive technology and HCI.
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