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Hybrid and Renewable Energy Resources in India

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In India, they do not connect many large numbers of areas and villages to the power distribution system. Therefore, hybrid renewable sources of energy is better way to provide power in these areas. Renewable energy sources and technologies can provide solutions to the problems we are facing about the energy in the developing countries. The renewable source of energy is one of the many ways or options which provide the power the generation and distribution in the country. Today, renewable account for about 33% of India’s primary energy consumptions. There is an increasing need to explore renewable energy sources to meet sustainability and environmental targets. In this paper, renewable energy and hybrid energy is explained how it is effective and better for the nature.

Introduction

The sources of electricity production such as coal, oil, and natural gas have contributed to one-third of global greenhouse gas emissions. Renewable hybrids resources can be one of the solution to the issues. A hybrid system can be the combination of wind, solar with an additional resource of generation or storage. Using renewable energy or green energy for the distribution of electrical power in the remote areas is quiet prominent as this energy is abundant in nature. It defines hybrid energy as the combination of various renewable energy resources which are present in the nature and it defines renewable energy resources as energy from resources which are present or exist over a wide geographical area and are present in nature. For, the power generation fossil fuels is on the fuels which is used and is a major factor of increased pollution level and climate change. Coal is a primary source of air pollution and greenhouse gas emission. This kind of energy is not helpful in the future and depending upon fossil fuels can be impactful to the nature and the environment. Hybrid systems are in the competition in reduction of cost of battery storage and solar energy. An optimal combination of solar, wind and storage can deliver stable round-the-clock power even at today’s costs of around ₹6-7/kWh.

Hybrid and Renewable Energy in India

India in the field of hybrid energy has added 65-75 GW of wind and solar capacity so far, with the contribution of 9.5 percent of generated energy in May 2019 and government is planning to achieve 175 GW by next two years, which could exceed the share of energy to 15-16 percent. India’s ministry of new and renewable energy in 2018 released a solar-wind hybrid policy which was to provide a framework to promote grid connected hybrid energy through set-ups that would use land and transmission infrastructure optimally and also manage the variability of renewable resources to some extent. As energy is the basic requirement in our day-to-day life and for the economic development in every sector of Indian economy. So it is necessary for India to look out the alternative energy source for the generation and distribution of energy across the country. India in the coming years is determined to produce clean energy, which means no pollution and terrible impact to the environment. The Government of India has put forward many provisions and established many agencies that will help in achieving its clean energy goal. Renewable energy, excluding large hydro projects already account for 9% of the total installed energy capacity, equivalent to 12,610 MW of energy. In combination with large hydro, the capacity is over 34%, i.e., 48,643 MW, in a total installed capacity of 144,980 MW. Fig. 1 is showing installed power capacity (MW) in India.

Gross Installed Capacity of Renewable Energy

State government, central government, and private companies are on the driving seat of the Indian energy sector which means private sector is leading the way in renewable energy source investment in India. In India almost 95% of the installed renewable capacity derives from private companies, 2% from the central government, and 3% from the state government. The top private companies in the field of non-conventional energy generation are Tata Power Solar, Suzlon, and ReNew Power. Tata Power Solar System Limited are the most significant integrated solar power players in the country, Suzlon realizes wind energy projects, and ReNew Power Ventures operate with solar and wind power.

Under union budget of India 2018–2019, INR 3762 crore (USD 581.09 million), was allotted for grid interactive renewable power schemes and projects. As per the 31.12.2018, the installed capacity of total renewable power (excluding large hydropower) in the country amounted to 74.08166 GW. Around 9.363 GW of solar energy, 1.766 GW of wind, 0.105 GW of small hydropower (SHP), and biomass power of 8.7 GW capacity were added in 2017–2018. Wind energy is the leading power generator in renewable energy industry, which is over 47% (35,138.15 MW) of the total generation of renewable energy across the country, followed by solar power 34% (9075.5 MW) and small hydropower of 6% (4517.45 MW). In the renewable energy country attractiveness index (RECAI) of 2018, India ranked in fourth position. The installed renewable energy production capacity has grown at a sped up pace over the preceding few years, posting a CAGR of 19.78% between 2014 and 2018. Some renewable energy resources are Biomass, Hydropower, Solar energy, Wind energy, and geothermal energy. These renewable resources are used to produce the electricity and are not producing any harm to the environment and there is no pollution.

Current Energy Policies

In every Five-Year plans (FYPs) government introduces some policies regarding these renewable resources for the betterment of the environment. Therefore, government has introduces some policies with the final word objectives in mind to framework significantly increase the share of renewable energy source in India’s energy mix. These energy policies set by the government are:

The Electricity Act contains the subsequent provisions regarding non-conventional energy sources. The Central Government shall, from time to time, prepare and publish the National Electricity Policy and Tariff Policy, in consultation with the state governments and authority for development of the power system supported optimal utilization of resources like coal, fossil fuel, nuclear substances or material, hydro and renewable sources of energy.

The national electricity policy aims at achieving the subsequent objectives; access to electricity, availability of power demand, energy and peaking shortages to be overcome and spinning reserve to be available.

The Tariff Policy announced in January 2006 has the subsequent provisions:

  1. The Appropriate Commission shall fix a minimum percentage for purchase of energy from such sources taking into consideration availability of such resources within the region and its impact on retail tariffs.
  2. It’ll take some time before non-conventional technologies can compete with conventional sources in terms of cost of electricity. Therefore, procurement by distribution companies shall be done at preferential tariffs determined by the Commission.
  3. Such procurement by Distribution Licensees for future requirements shall be done, as far as possible, through competitive bidding process under Section 63 of the Act within suppliers offering energy from the same variety of nonconventional sources.
  4. The Central Commission should lie down guidelines within three months for pricing non-firm power, especially from nonconventional sources, to be followed in cases where such procurement isn’t through competitive bidding.

National Rural Electrification Policies, 2006

  1. Goals include provision of access to electricity to any or all households by the year 2009, quality and reliable power supply at reasonable rates, and minimum lifeline consumption of 1 unit/household/day as a merit good by year 2012.
  2.  For villages/habitations where grid connectivity wouldn’t be workable or not cost effective, off-grid solutions supported it may take standalone systems up for supply of electricity.
  3. State government should, within 6 months, prepare and notify a rural electrification plan, which should map and detail the electrification delivery mechanism.
  4. The Gram Panchayat shall certify and make sure the electrified status of the village as on 31st March annually.
  5. Integrated Energy Policy Report (Planning Commission) 2006
  6. Suggest a path to satisfy energy needs of the country in an integrated manner up to 2031–2032. It recommended special focus on renewable energy development.

Conclusion

India isn’t only the country which is doing great within the field of hybrid and renewable energy sources, about 50-plus projects of MW-scale have already been announced or are under construction globally, with Australia and US being the leaders. As renewable energy resources are the long run of distribution and generation of power electricity, therefore sizeable of projects are installed by the private and central companies to attain the goal of unpolluted energy. In order that there’s no pollution and terrible impact on the environment. As people are becoming knowledgeable about these energy sources, many of them are moving towards the renewable source of energy to tackle the pollution and heating.

References

  1. B. Shyam and P. Kanakasabapathy, ‘Renewable energy utilization in India — policies, opportunities and challenges,’ 2017 International Conference on Technological Advancements in Power and Energy (TAP Energy), Kollam, 2017
  2. Kumar. J, C.R., Majid, M.A. Renewable energy for sustainable development in India: current status, future prospects, challenges, employment, and investment opportunities. Energ Sustain Soc 10, 2 (2020).
  3. Bhardwaj, Priyavrat & Tanwar, Amar. (2016). IMPLEMENTATION OF HYBRID ENERGY SYSTEM IN INDIA. International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology, Volume: 05 Issue: 11 | Nov-2016. 5. 10.15623/ijret.2016.0511029.
  4. Ashwani Kumar, Kapil Kumar, Naresh Kaushik, Satyawati Sharma, Saroj Mishra, Renewable energy in India: Current status and future potentials, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Volume 14, Issue 8, 2010

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Hybrid and Renewable Energy Resources in India. (2022, August 30). GradesFixer. Retrieved September 22, 2022, from https://gradesfixer.com/free-essay-examples/hybrid-and-renewable-energy-resources-in-india/
“Hybrid and Renewable Energy Resources in India.” GradesFixer, 30 Aug. 2022, gradesfixer.com/free-essay-examples/hybrid-and-renewable-energy-resources-in-india/
Hybrid and Renewable Energy Resources in India. [online]. Available at: <https://gradesfixer.com/free-essay-examples/hybrid-and-renewable-energy-resources-in-india/> [Accessed 22 Sept. 2022].
Hybrid and Renewable Energy Resources in India [Internet]. GradesFixer. 2022 Aug 30 [cited 2022 Sept 22]. Available from: https://gradesfixer.com/free-essay-examples/hybrid-and-renewable-energy-resources-in-india/
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