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Just six weeks premature, by way of a C-Section Sam was born. Requiring respiratory and oxygen for his breathing upon his delivery. The Apgar score for Sam after being on oxygen for one minute was at a 5, his score went up to 8 after five minutes. His premature birth kept Sam in the hospital for seventy-two hours before he was able to go home. Roberto and Jane were Sam’s parents, they lived in a rural area, and had very few friends; yet they have family living close to them. The medical report clearly indicates that Jane occasionally consumed alcohol during her pregnancy, increasing in the third trimester, this took place upon her husband (Roberto) being laid off from his job. The amount of maternity leave Jane had received from her job was 12 weeks however, she is considering going back to work early. Jane’s mother offered for them to stay with her on a temporary basis to help them out for a while. Jane’s levels of cortisol were elevated because of her drinking throughout her pregnancy.
Cortisol levels that are high can be very damaging for the growing fetus, this can lead to miscarriages or the need for an abortion. The effects of high levels of cortisol have been found to impact the fetus such as; the need for an abortion, slow development and growth of the fetus, birth weight being too low, problems with attention span while the child is growing up, and psychopathology and other illness as an adult that could be chronic (Field & Diego, 2008). Jane’s levels of cortisol being too high during her pregnancy explains the fussiness that Sam is experiencing. Sam could have Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) due to the drinking Jane did during her pregnancy; however, there have been studies that clearly state that exposure to alcohol during pregnancy could result in the display of alcohol-related brain and behavioral abnormalities yet are not normally diagnosed with FASD as these abnormal facial features are not shown (Warren & Foudin). There is not sufficient evidence for the Diagnosis of FASD with Sam. There is research that clearly shows the many health issues that premature babies are at risk of having after being delivered by C-Section (Berk, 2018). These infants require more care with the use of oxygen than infants of a normal delivery (Kamath et al, 2009 & Yakov et al, 2006). Upon Sam’s premature birth and the C-Section delivery there may be a connection of his lungs being underdeveloped, this would give reasons behind him struggling, and having a difficult time with his breathing and his respiratory. The amount of stress that Jane and Roberto are feeling as new parents, I believe is high; then on top of that they are financially struggling, with Roberto having been laid off from his job and Jane on leave from her work for her pregnancy. In the United States when a woman takes maternity leave the pay is only ¾’s her normal pay (Geissler, 2005).
According to Berk, “babies that are both preterm and economically disadvantaged require intensive intervention, and that interventions includes parent training sessions along with medical follow-up” (Berk, 2018). After reading the whole case file, I noticed nowhere did it indicate that Jane and Roberto attended classes for childbirth, or parenting, or had referenced any books on babies. Jane and Roberto should seek out support from their family and even their friends, especially friends that have experience, they should also seek out support from professionals such as social workers or doctors. The offer from Jane’s mother to allow them to move in with her would give them support in caring for Sam, this would lesson some of the stress they may be experiencing. It would also give them time to adjust to their new life of having a baby, they could gain the opportunity to make friends in their area, and possibly other parents their age in a group for support. Even though Sam came into this world with a mount of health issues, his health seems to be better, in a standard type of state. Currently Sam has no symptoms of FASD, however he should continue to be monitored by everyone involved for developing health issues later in his life because of the alcohol consumption his mother did while she was pregnant with him. Moreover, Jane and Roberto even without Sam having symptoms of FASD, should gain a support system in raising a special needs child.
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