Knee Development Issues In Children Of Different Ethnic Groups: [Essay Example], 760 words GradesFixer
This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by professional essay writers.

Knee Development Issues in Children of Different Ethnic Groups

downloadDownload printPrint

Pssst… we can write an original essay just for you.

Any subject. Any type of essay.

We’ll even meet a 3-hour deadline.

Get your price

121 writers online

Download PDF

A lot of children visit doctors because of their guardians worry about the TF angle of their children. Knowing the average range of the knee angle is most importance to avoid needless radiation and therapeutic procedure (orthotics or bracing). A reassurance on the part of the treating medical doctor helps alleviate the stress of the parents worried about the ‘‘bending of the knees’’ of their children.

Pssst... we can write an original essay just for you

Any subject. Any type of essay.

We’ll even meet a 3-hour deadline.

121 writers online

The TF angles at various age groups differ and ethnic variations are likely to be present. The doctor should, know these variations in their local population to create applicable treatment options, there are many studies regarding normal development of the knee angle in Nigerians, Koreans, and Turkish children.

Several methods have been used to measure the TF angles in children. Radiographic methods which are commonly used, are time-consuming and have ethnical problem related to needless radiation exposure in children. Further, a malrotation of the limb, if not taken care of, might lead to significant errors in the measurement of the TFA. Clinical methods of measuring the TF angles are acceptable and reproducible, with the advantage of being cheap and radiation-free. We used fixed bony points to calculate the TFA and the ICD and IMD using goniometer. Palpation of fixed bony landmarks is practical and easy. Also, the measurements are less likely to be erroneous, even in obese children and in children with marked femoral bowing which might preclude the exact location of the femur. The development of the TFA could be divided into three phases:first phase, during which knee alignment changes from an infantile physiologic varus to maximum valgus; second phase, when valgus knee alignment decreases in amount; and third phase, during which knee alignment remains stationary.

Anyway, the age ranges at which these phases come in children has been found to be varied in children with different ethnic groups In our present study, we found that none of the subjects had a negative TFA in the 2 years age group, the mean TFA was positive in Saudi children, even at the age of 2 years. This was the opposite to the findings of the largest study by Cheng et al. In the Chinese population, which stated a mean varus TFA at the age of 2 years. the authors noted a rapid decrease in the mean IMD in the Chinese children, reaching 0 cm at the age of 8 years, with a normal range of ±3 cm. Conversely, we observed both the ICD and IMD were variable with age.

Need help with writing?

You can order professional work according to specific instructions and 100% plagiarism free.

We also found that the maximum mean TFA (9. 70) with the age group between13 years, while in boys, the maximum mean TFA (11. 75) was seen in the same age group. Thereafter, the mean TFA stabilized to lie between 5 and 9 in most of the children. Saudi girls showed the maximum valgus of 18° recorded in normal girls at age 5 and 8 years, and normal boy at age of 8 year.

Our results were contrary to those of Oginni et al. , who estimated the knee angles of 2, 036 normal Nigerian kids up to an age of 12 years. In their study, they noted the huge portion of the knees to be bowed (varus) in the first 6 months. At 21–23 months of age, the distribution of angles became strongly bimodal: about half being varus and half being valgus (knock-kneed). After this, the knee angle was noted to be valgus in huge portion of the youngsters. They found that the change from varus to valgus in infants could be sudden (a few weeks), although the changeover of the whole population appeared gradual. The authors also found that varus knee alignment was uncommon after 2 years in Nigerian children and large knee angles between 2 and 5 years suggested rickets. However, in their study, the children became maximally and uniformly knock-kneed (-7. 1±1. 4) between 3 and 3. 5 years, with little change thereafter. This is contrary to our findings in Saudi children, in whom the maximum valgus has been noted to occur at an age of 5 and 8 years. our results had little increase in the mean valgus was 11.

Our results had little increase in the mean valgus was 11, 17 at the age of 13 compared to the study that has been done in India where the maximum valgus 9, 8 at the age of 6. The Indian study concluded that Indian children exhibiting maximum valgus 11 and any child measured higher than that should be considered abnormal. We should consider that different ethnic group has different patterns when it comes to knee development.

infoRemember: This is just a sample from a fellow student.

Your time is important. Let us write you an essay from scratch

100% plagiarism-free

Sources and citations are provided

Find Free Essays

We provide you with original essay samples, perfect formatting and styling

Cite this Essay

To export a reference to this article please select a referencing style below:

Knee Development Issues In Children Of Different Ethnic Groups. (2020, Jun 14). GradesFixer. Retrieved April 19, 2021, from
“Knee Development Issues In Children Of Different Ethnic Groups.” GradesFixer, 14 Jun. 2020,
Knee Development Issues In Children Of Different Ethnic Groups. [online]. Available at: <> [Accessed 19 Apr. 2021].
Knee Development Issues In Children Of Different Ethnic Groups [Internet]. GradesFixer. 2020 Jun 14 [cited 2021 Apr 19]. Available from:
copy to clipboard

Sorry, copying is not allowed on our website. If you’d like this or any other sample, we’ll happily email it to you.

    By clicking “Send”, you agree to our Terms of service and Privacy statement. We will occasionally send you account related emails.


    Attention! this essay is not unique. You can get 100% plagiarism FREE essay in 30sec

    Recieve 100% plagiarism-Free paper just for 4.99$ on email
    get unique paper
    *Public papers are open and may contain not unique content
    download public sample

    Sorry, we cannot unicalize this essay. You can order Unique paper and our professionals Rewrite it for you



    Your essay sample has been sent.

    Want us to write one just for you? We can custom edit this essay into an original, 100% plagiarism free essay.

    thanks-icon Order now

    Hi there!

    Are you interested in getting a customized paper?

    Check it out!
    Having trouble finding the perfect essay? We’ve got you covered. Hire a writer uses cookies. By continuing we’ll assume you board with our cookie policy.


    Haven't found the right essay?

    Get an expert to write you the one you need!


    Professional writers and researchers


    Sources and citation are provided


    3 hour delivery