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G1- the size of the cells increases, synthesize proteins and produce RNA. The DNA synthesis is also enhanced. S phase- the replication of DNA takes place which produces the two similar daughter cells. G2- this is the gap between mitosis and synthesis of DNA where the cells grows and produces proteins. It determines whether the cell can move to mitosis (CELL alive).
The production of protein and cell growth is terminated at this stage and the available energy is used in the division to produce similar daughter cells (CELL alive).
M phase is the shortest (CELL alive).
G0 is the stage where the cell leaves the cycle and stops deviding.
It would be a problem because the stage of development will be affected and division will be stopped (CELL alive).
Brain cells and nerve cells.
The intestinal wall cells divide often. It divides frequently to provide new surfaces since the surfaces are frequently worn out during digestion.
Mitosis helps in the replication of somatic cells in the body, growth and repair.
The homologous chromosomes are the ones that are in pairs and have diploid chromosome number (2n) while replicated chromosomes are the ones that have undergone the DNA replication and they have two sister chromatids.
Human gamete has 23 pairs and the human somatic cell has 23 pairs.
Anaphase has twice as many chromosomes as the previous phases.
Production of gametes in human body.
Interphase I- in this stage, the DNA has replicated and they are in a chromatin. The nuclear membrane is present and it protects the DNA molecules from mutation
Prophase I- here, the DNA molecules shorten and coil forming chromosomes. The nuclear membrane is not visible at this stage and the spindles moves to the opposite cell poles
Metaphase I- Here, the homologous pairs of chromosomes line up next to each other.
Anaphase I- the homologous chromosome pairs moves to the opposite poles along the spindle fibres.
Telophase I- here, the cell undergoes division.
The number of chromosomes is reduced to half the original number.
Crossing over is the genetic recombination and it occurs at metaphase I stage.
It allows for the shuffling of both parents’ characteristics leading to the rise of a variety of possible combinations.
Independent assortment is where the genes that represent contrasting trait pairs are segregated to gametes independently of each other and the person associated with the principle is called Mendel. The Independent Assortment of chromosomes occurs during prophase.
Genetic variation is important for species to evolve the new mechanisms and to adapt. Natural selection is enhanced by the genetically un-identical characteristics.
Prophase II- the nuclear envelope breaks down and the spindle fibrses start to form.
Metaphase II- the lining up of the paired chromosomes takes place at this phase.
AnaphaseII- the chromatids split and move to the opposite poles along the spindle fibres.
Telophase II- the cells in the center undergoes another division resulting to four cells each having half of the genetic material found in the original cell.
When chromosomes in meiosis fail to separate, it is called aneuploidy and the condition is called mutation.
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