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Though the three dynasties have a considerable impact on the world history, I would like to put up Mughal dynasty as momentaneous as there were well-organized administration and taxation system. Foundation of Mughal empire The Khyber pass enacted as a gateway to the Indian subcontinent, lead many conquerors like Genghis Khan in search of new lands to bring in more territory and more wealth in search of power.
Babur, being a maternal descendant of Genghis Khan and patrilineal descendant of Timur, want to fulfill his ancestral desire to achieve power in the Indian subcontinent. After Babur’s victory in the Battle of Panipat -1 over Ibrahim Lodi, Lodi dynasty came to an end. He captured Delhi and Agra and established the Mongol dynasty which was later named as The Great Mughal Empire by the Europeans. Military Innovation in India During the battle of Panipat-1, Though Babur army’s strength was far less than that of Ibrahim Lodi’s, Babur got the victory by implementing the Warfield plan of ottomans of dividing the army into formations that could surround the enemy army and attacking them on all sides. Usage of gunpowder, musketeers, and artilleries had their impact on their further use in the Indian subcontinent.
Mix of Persian and Indian culture Though Persian was the official language, Akbar has encouraged poetry, literature, and arts of India. While Akbar was ruling, new Indo-Persian art and architecture were developed. He was liberal in his policy to towards and established a religion which was common to all, contained the common teaching of all religions. He constructed monuments mainly of mosques and forts which one of them later become a wonder of world depicting their style of architecture. Despite his great grandfather’s universal tolerance irrelevant of religion gaining a good name from the other religious kingdoms, Aurangzeb being a core musalman had destroyed many Hindu temples which eventually lead to chaos and confusion in state politics.
Efficient Taxation and administration system The Mughals were able to include the Indian princes to ruling class while still reserving top positions for Muslims so as to ensure that laws established were implemented especially in tax collection and also he changed these officials often to ensure that no one becomes powerful. Akbar had laid a foundation for an efficient administration.He introduced Mansabdari system by which every officer had been given a rank or Mansab.
This system formed the foundation of military and civil administration. He canceled the jizya tax which only non-muslims had to pay. He divided the empire into 15 provinces. Each of them was subdivided into circars and each circar to Parganas. Some villages constitute a Pargana. The Mughals collected tax on revenue, agriculture and on trade. The increasing demand for agriculture and industrial products of India in European country paved a way for the increasing economy in India.
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