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The occurrence of the dengue problem around the world has been dramatically increasing in recent years, most of it are underreported and misclassified. And about 390 million cases of dengue infections per year, 3.9 billion individuals are at risk in having the virus in 128 countries. Dengue Virus Net (2018) described Aedes aegypti (Dengue) mosquitoes as extremely small that constitute the family of Culicidae with a complex life cycle that undergoes dramatic changes in shape, function, and habitat and eventually causes dengue fever.
A recent study of Ebana et. Al. (2015) revealed that Nypa frutican is composed of bioactive chemicals particularly saponins, anthronoids, alkaloids, polyphenols, phlobotannins, and saponins which can be considered as biochemical agents that can inhibit and eventually kill mosquito larvae. The presence of alkaloids, phenolics and terpenoid in the extract of Ziziphus jujube Mill (which are also present in Nypa frutican leaves) resulted to the death of dengue vector mosquito larvae. Furthermore, phenols contributed to the shortening of the life span of an adult mosquito, as well as lessening their ability to reproduce more during mating.
An example of a palm species that is usually found living in mangrove forest is the Nypa fruticans. Nypa fruticans has the capability to survive in an extreme environment and this is possibly the result of why nypa fruticans might as well helped it to have a type of defense metabolites (Aziz & Jack, 2015). One of the studies by Prasad et. Al., (2013) unveiled that the ripe and unripe fruit of Nypa fruticans, which was somewhat ignored in the field of science, exhibited bioactive compounds such as phenolics, flavonoid, and antioxidants. In terms of abundance, Phenolics, was indicated to have the greatest amount among all the biochemicals found in the fruit.
The four flavonoids namely ponarin, rhoifolin, naringin and marmesin were proven to have a repellency effect on Aedes aegypti and have no skin irritation when tested by the research with 25 volunteers. Thus, the four flavonoid compounds can be a potential mosquitocidal commercial product and can be an alternative for chemicals that are used for mosquito repellency. Dhandapani, A., & Kadarkarai, M. (2011) they analyze the effectiveness of the flavonoid in the extract of ethanol in Cassia Occidentalis against Malaria Vectore Anopheles Stephensi Lis. The result shows that the smoke toxicity of flavonoid in the extract of ethanol in Cassia Occidentalis against Anopheles stephensi it shows that the eggs of the female oviposited where fewer because it was exposing the flavonoid in the extract of ethanol in Cassia Occidentalis and those who were not exposed shows no sign of change.
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