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The V-model contains several verification phases, where the requirements are clearly identified, the architecture of the program is designed and then the design is implemented with coding. The validation phases in this model contain the tests designed for each verification stage. The different tests used in this model are: acceptance tests, system tests, integration tests and unit tests.
The first phase included in the verification part is the requirements analysis where the product requirements are understood from the customer’s perspective. It is very important that this phase includes detailed communication with the customer to understand his expectations and exact requirement. This is because, most of the time the customer doesn’t exactly know what they want. The acceptance test design planning is done at this stage as these requirements can be used as an input for the first tests. Acceptance tests are used to show the compatibility issues with the other systems available to the user.
The next stages of the verification are the design stages, which include system design, architectural design and module design. These stages occur after the requirements have been defined and include the design of the whole system. The system design includes the complete hardware and communication setup needed for the product. A system test plan is developed based on the chosen design. System tests are used to check the entire system’s functionality and the communication of the system with external systems.
Furthermore, the architecture of the product is designed. Usually, more than one approach is chosen for the design, however this is down to the financial and technical feasibility of the product. The high level design refers to the general design of the whole system that is broken down into modules, which each have their own functions. Integration tests are run to test the communication of internal modules in the system.
On the other hand, low level design is the detailed internal design of each of the system modules. The design needs to be compatible with the modules in the system architecture, but also for external systems. To reduce the errors and faults in the design, unit tests can be designed at this stage based on the internal module designs. Unit testing refers to the testing at code level and helps eliminate bugs at an early stage.
After that, the actual coding of the application is developed and the most suitable programming language is chosen for the system and requirements. The code is written to fit in with the requirements provided. the code is checked many times to find out how they could optimize it to make it more efficient.
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