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Public Policy as The Goal-achieving Model

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Public Policies are goal leaning. Public policies are developed and made so on achieve the objectives that the government has insight for the ultimate good thing about the plenty normally. It’s going to be said that public policy formulation and completion involves a well-planned pattern or course of activity.  This Unit tries to clarify meaning and kinds of public policy. It’ll highlight the in contrast to elements of a policy and differentiate flanked by policy, decision, and goal. An attempt goes to be created to bring out the connection flanked by politics and policy, and therefore the importance and options of public policy are going to be mentioned. 

Regardless of is that the sort, oligarchy, monarchy, nobility, oppression, democracy etc., whenever and where governments have existed, public policies are developed and enforced. It needs a carefully close join relation and communication flanked by the important governmental agency viz., the political government, legislature, bureaucracy, and judiciary. The next points can produce the character of public policy a lot of clarity in your minds:

  • Public policy is that the result of the government’s communal actions. It implies that it is a definition of the activity or the govt officers and actors during a very communal sense than being termed as their separate and segregated choices.
  • Public policy is what the government truly decides or chooses to undertake to do. It’s the connection between the governments. Units to the precise field of political surroundings during a very given administrative system. It’ll take a diversity of shapes like law, ordinances, court choices, government orders, choices etc. Public policy is positive within the sense that it depicts the priority of the government and involves its action to a conscientious problem there on the policy is made. It is the authorize of law and authority behind it.
  • Negatively, it involves choices through the governmental officer’s officials not taking any action on a scrupulous issue.


Policy and Goals

To understand the means of policy in a very better manner, it’s very important to make a difference flanked by policy and goals. A goal could be the desired state of relationships that a society or an organization tries to understand. Goals are understood in a very diversity of perspective. These are thought of as abstract values that society would really like to get. There are goals that are specific and real. Removal of poverty could be a goal that the government desires to follow. Public policies are involved with such specific goals. They’re the instruments that result in the success of those goals. If the government announces that its goal is to provide housing to all or any the members of the disadvantaged sections of society it doesn’t become a public policy. It’s a statement of intention of what the govt. desires to try to do. Many times the government, for political causes, announces goals that it’s very little want to attain. So as to become a policy, the goal must be translated into action. Programmes have to be future to attain specific objectives. Several programmes are meant for this, e.g., the integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP), The National Rural Employment Programme (NREP) etc.

Every programme has bound goals to attain within a specified time and every programme is given monetary property and administrative personnel. These become concrete efforts to attain a goal. The policy spells out the set up of achieving a goal. So the policy is essentially an instrument to attain a goal. Statement of goal docs does not create it a policy. Public Policy could be a document that contains the broad define additionally because they explained the description of creation additionally as putt into the use of various government.

Programmes and plans that are taken out for the object of public benefit and put into use through the approving with, or associated with, the Constitution people in charge, bureaucracy and government organizations /institutions in partnership with a community of people living well along with organizations. It takes a spread of forms like law, ordinances, court decisions, executive orders, decisions, etc. It is the authoritative declaration of the intentions of the government of what it intends to try to do and to not do & the achievement of Public Administration, additionally because the government in a very country, is connected with the accomplishment of its Public Policy.

Features of Public Policy Making

The meaning and nature of public policy can become clearer through throwing light-weight on dissimilar options of public policy. A number of the major options of public policymaking are:

  • Public policymaking intricate terribly process: policymaking involves many elements, that are interconnected through communication and feedback loops and that move in dissimilar strategies. Some elements of the method are express and directly are however many others proceed through hidden channels that the officials themselves are usually only partially aware of. Therefore, guidelines are usually formed through a series of single choices that result in a policy with none one of the choice manufacturers being aware of that process.
  • Policy structure creates sissimilar contributions: this feature suggests that each substructure creates a dissimilar, and generally unique, contribution to public policy. What type of contribution substructures produce, depends partially on their formal and informal options that vary from society to society.
  • Decision-Making: policymaking could be a species of decision-making as a result of it lets us use decision-making models for managing policymaking.
  • Lays down major guidelines: public policy, in most cases, lays down general directives, instead of detailed instructions, on the most lines of action to be followed. When main lines of action are selected, detailed sub-policies that translate the final theory into more concrete conditions are usually required to execute it.
  • Results in action: cecision-making may result in action, in changes within the decision-making itself, or each or neither. The policies of most socially necessary decision-making, like most public policy making are planned to end in action. Additionally, policies directed at the policy making tools it like efficiency drives in government are action-oriented.
  • It could be a dynamic process: policy making could be a method that’s a continuing activity happening within a structure; for sustenance, it needs a continuing input of possessions and motivation. It’s a dynamic method, which changes with time, the sequences of its sub-processes and stages vary internally and with reference to each other.


Models of Policy Making

Public Policy has stated that precisely policy analysis involves: a primary concern with explanation instead of prescription; a rigorous look for the causes and consequences of public policies; and an effort to develop and test general propositions in reference to the causes and consequences of public policy and to accumulate reliable research findings of general relevance. The policy scientists have created theories and models to assist them to understand and explain the policy making process. Although most of those models are developed for the aim of policy making, yet they will easily be depended upon for the aim of policy analysis.

Institutional Model

It focus on the quality organization of state. It describes duties and arrangements of bureaus and departments. It considers constitutional provisions, administrative and customary law, and judicial decisions. It focuses on formal arrangements like federalism executive reorganizations, a presidential commission, etc. traditionally government has studied government institutions-Congress, presidency, courts, political parties, etc.–that authoritatively verify, implement, and enforce public policy. Strictly speaking, a policy isn’t a public policy until it’s adopted, enforced, and enforced by some governmental establishment.

  • Government lends legitimacy to policies, they’re then legal;
  • Government extends policies universally to cover all people in society; 
  • Government monopolizes the facility to coerce obedience to policy, or to sanction violators;
  • Traditional studies exploitation the institutional approach focused on institutional structures, organization, duties, and performance, without investigating their impact on public policy;
  • This model also specifies and suggests the link between numerous institutions and therefore the way all of them work along and together contribute to an in policy implementation.


Group Model

Public policy results from a system of forces and pressures working on and reacting to at least one another. Sometimes focuses on the legislature, however, the executive is additionally pressured by interest teams. Agencies could even be captured by the teams they’re meant to manage, and administrators become more and more unable to differentiate between policies which can profit the overall public and policies which can profit the teams being regulated. Interaction among teams is that the central truth of politics. People with common interests unify to press their demands (formal or informally) on government. People are necessary for politics as long as they act as a part of or on behalf of group interests.

The group is the bridge between the individual and thus the government. The task of the political system is to:

  1. Establish the foundations of the game;
  2. Arrange compromises and balance interests;
  3. Enact compromises publically policy;
  4. Enforce these compromises it’s additionally referred to as equilibrium theory, as in physics. Influence is about by numbers, wealth, and structure strength, leadership, access to call makers, and internal cohesion.


Policy manufacturers answer group pressure by bargaining, negotiating, and compromising among competing demands. Executives, legislators, and agency head all place alongside coalitions from their consistencies to push programs through. Political parties are coalitions of groups. The Democrats have traditionally been a central city, labour, ethnics/immigrants, the poor, Catholics, liberals, intellectuals, blacks, and Southern blue-collar staff. Republicans are wealthy, rural, village, whites, suburbanites, white-collar staff, conservatives, and the bourgeoisie.

A number of teams and lobbies possessing power and arranged defensive structure over the bureaucracy and legislature get their method in policy choice and implementation. the entire system assumes:

  • A ‘latent’ group supports the foundations of Team;
  • There’s overlapping group membership that keeps teams from moving too mainstream out of the political thought;
  • There are checks and balances on the team’s competition.


Elite-Mass Model

A policy making elite acts in an environment characterized by apathy and knowledge distortion and governs for the foremost the most passive mass. Policy descending from the elite to the mass. Society is split into those who have power and other people who don’t. The prevailing public policies mirror elite values that typically preserve the Policy flows established order. Elites have here grown, additional education, and higher standing than the mass. Public policy may even be viewed since of the values and preferences of the governing elite

The elites shape mass opinion over the other way around. Public officials and director administrators do policies selected by the elite, which flow ‘down’ to the mass. It assumes that:

  1. Society is split into the powerful few and additionally the ineffective many; only the few assign values (the mass do not decide public policy);
  2. The few do not appear to be typical of the mass; the elite’s area unit drew disproportionately from the higher strata;
  3. There should be slow and continuous movement of non-elites into elite positions, but only they accept elite values, thus on maintain stability and avoid revolution;
  4. All elites agree on basic social system and preservation values, i.e., personal property, restricted government, and individual liberty;
  5. Changes in public policy are reaching to be progressive instead of revolutionary, reflective changes in elite values (not mass demands);
  6. Active elites are subject to little influence from apathetic tons. Implications square measure that the responsibility for the state of things rests with the elites, besides the welfare of the mass.


The mass is apathetic associate degreed ill-informed; mass sentiments area unit manipulated by the elite; the mass has solely an indirect influence on selections and policy. As communication flows solely downward, democratic common elections are symbolic during this they tie the mass to the system through a political party and occasional vote. Policies would possibly change incrementally but the elites are conservative and cannot modify the basic system. Only policy alternatives that fall among they vary of elite worth agreement are reaching to be given a serious thought. There is always agreement on constitutional government, democratic procedures, majority rule, and freedom of speech and of the press, freedom to make political parties and last office, equality of chance, personal estate, individual initiative, and reward, and additionally the legitimacy of free enterprise and capitalist economy. The tons can’t be relied on to support these values consistently, so the elite should support them.

Systems Model

Public policy is viewed because the response of the political system to forces dropped at bear thereon from the surface environment. The environment surrounds the political system. Demands are dropped at it by persons or teams in response to real or perceived environmental conditions, for state action. Support is given where citizens adjust laws; vote, pay taxes, etc., and conforms to public policies. A political system might be a group of interconnected structures and processes which will authoritatively assign resources for society. The actors are the legislature, the executive, the administrative agencies, the courts, interest teams, political parties, and citizens. Outputs are choices and actions and public policy.

The political system is an acknowledgeable system of institutions and processes that rework inputs into outputs for the entire society. the weather with the system are interconnected and it’ll answer forces within the environment, and it seeks to preserve itself in balance with the environment. The system preserves itself by manufacturing reasonably satisfactory outputs (compromises are organized, enacted, and enforced). It depends on deep-rooted support for the system itself and its use, or threat of use, of force. Macro-level policies are people that concern the entire system and are influenced by official and unofficial teams (media, etc.). It should center on the right role of Congress or the President or the relationships of state and business or voters and businesses.

Subsystem policies involve legislators, administrators, and lobbyists, and researchers who concentrate on explicit drawback areas; additionally referred to as sub-governments, policy clusters, coalitions, or iron triangles. E.G. civil aviation, harbors, agricultural subsidies, grazing lands, etc. small level policies are efforts by people, companies, or communities to secure some favorable legislation for them. Generally presented to a legislator as an invitation from the house district. The motivation to interact in micro-politics will increase due to the extent of state advantages, programs, and rules increases.


To deal with the various troubles and demands of the individuals the government must produce many policies, these policies are mentioned as public policies. Public Policy within the enormous term refers to the policy found out of what to try to do that’s created and used for the great thing about the overall public. As results of Public is additionally used as a word meaning the same as the Government in several places. Within the country Public Policy had its own goals and models that help to achieve these goals and describe the process of doing it. 

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