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4 pages /
According to the research of Field, the main goal is to generate new knowledge and extend and verify existing knowledge to improve practice the essence of this article is to emphasize in detail the similarities and differences between quantitative and qualitative research methods. Research methods refer to all procedures used by researchers in the research process. It includes quantitative and qualitative methods. Quantitative surveys are systematic methods used to quantify variables. Groove also defines quantitative research as a systematic, structured, and formal process that uses statistical methods for data collection, analysis, interpretation, and presentation. In contrast, Carter and Thomas defined qualitative research as a systematic but unstructured method that uses narrative descriptive methods in data collection, analysis, interpretation, and presentation. It is also known as the main exploratory investigation, used to deepen the understanding of basic ideas, ideas, and perceptions, and to establish hypotheses for possible quantitative investigation. Regardless of the different meanings of quantitative and qualitative research, they are all research methods that follow a step-by-step process. Systematically consider all components of the research process, such as methodology and design. This corresponds to a rigorous process that defines research as a system. Quantitative investigations use convergentdeductive reasoning. It is often referred to as the 'top-down' approach because it applies to assumptions. Analyze a wide range of interests until a conclusion is reached. Quantitative research is also called 'benchmark science' simply because it uses experiments to explain its hypothesis, which shows the relationship between independent variables (causes) and dependent variables (effects).
In contrast, qualitative research uses divergent inductive reasoning. Provides a new theory for quantitative research, which can experience and explore phenomena. This method is also called a 'bottom-up' method because you start by observing, develop a model, create a hypothesis to support your theory, and draw conclusions based on multiple ideas. Explain the meaning of the variables, rather than showing the relationship between them. However, from a different perspective, Thomas and James believe that the role of quantitative research is not only to experiment with the theories developed by qualitative research but also to develop their theories from the researchers' predictions. Truncellito emphasized the importance of epistemology (the existence of knowledge) and ontology (the existence of truth reality) in the research paradigm. It consists of positivism and interpretivism. Quantitative research is based on positivism. It is objective in nature because it generates knowledge and truth from the researcher's single thoughts and predictions, experience confirmation, and experiments. On the other hand, qualitative research is based on explanatory theory. It is subjective in nature. It derives knowledge from the interpretation of multiple viewpoints of people's experience, behavior, and understanding of the natural environment, with almost no researcher predictions. The literature review is a very important part of the research process because it provides a comprehensive understanding of the research problem.
Both quantitative and qualitative research methods have reviewed the literature, but the literature research methods are different. A quantitative researcher conducted a detailed review of the literature before starting the research; a qualitative researcher briefly reviewed the literature at the beginning of the research. However, contrary to this view, Silverman believes that qualitative researchers should analyze data before reviewing similar literature to reduce the possibility of bias due to researchers' belief that they may be affected. This is called 'experimental bias.' The research literature is composed of complex words, so both quantitative and qualitative research methods have verified the importance of operational definitions to promote readers' understanding. Conduct quantitative research in an experimental controlled environment to ensure the accuracy of the results; contrary to this view, Jones believes that quantitative research may be biased because it is not in a realistic environment In progress. On the other hand, qualitative research is also called naturalistic science because it is conducted in the natural environment of the subject. This allows researchers to understand the factors that may affect the research, these factors may be socio-economic factors, for example; poor education and illiteracy.
As explained by Dahlgren and Whitehead, people from these backgrounds may not be able to cope with the research process because the research process is related to broader health determinants. Research conducted in the natural environment is very important for nursing practice because it can improve nurses' understanding of the patient's personal experience and allow them to reflect and act to develop strategies to improve the care experience of the patient. patient. This is consistent with ‘improving the experience of patients and clients’. The sampling method refers to the technique used to select the sample size and the sample size refers to the population that chooses to participate in the study. The main sampling techniques are; probability and non-probability sampling techniques; Quantitative research uses probability sampling techniques to select the sample size in order to obtain results that can be generalized to the population. The types of probabilistic techniques include: simple, systematic random stratified sampling techniques. On the other hand, qualitative research uses non-probability sampling techniques, such as snowballing, quotas, and convenience-purpose sampling techniques. However, Barbie affirms that some non-probability sampling methods can be used in quantitative research.
The size of the sample of quantitative studies is in the range of 100 to 1000 or more, but it is relatively small in the range of 20-30. However, Mason is affirmed that researchers can choose the largest possible sample size until the saturation point can be generalized. From different opinions, Jackson suggests that 10 minimum sample sizes are accurate since qualitative studies can not establish and generalize hypotheses. Quantitative studies are systematic and structured studies of the hard type that use standard operating procedures (SOPS) for data collection. On the contrary, although qualitative research is systematic, it is flexible and uses unstructured tools for data collection. Therefore, in the interview, the questions may vary according to the participants' answers. Quantitative surveys use a related and experimental method, which is an indispensable aspect of nursing practice because it enables nurses to understand independent variables (causes) and dependent variables (effects) and The relationship. For example, experiments can be performed to identify the relationship between lung cancer (dependent variable) and smoking (dependent variable). This is consistent with Webb, who emphasized the importance of evidence-based practice in the nursing industry. In contrast, qualitative research methods focus on the use of ethnography, phenomenological methods, and case studies, which are also important in nursing practice because it allows nurses to understand the patient's personal experience and needs.
In both quantitative and qualitative research methods, ethical considerations are crucial. Therefore, it is necessary to obtain the informed consent of the research participants, which takes into account the following four ethical principles: autonomy, non-malice, benevolence, and justice. This aims to treat participants fairly and involve them in every decision-making process in the research process, as supported by 'Liberation of the NHS: Without Me, No Decision'. Both methods allow participants to choose for themselves, and all data collected during the research process is strictly confidential. The Declaration of Helsinki, the Data Protection Act, and the Data Protection Committee support this, stating that survey data must be u201ckept in a safe, locked drawer, a locked room in', 'In a building' and all electronic equipment used for research work must be constructed with a protected design. Data collection methods in quantitative surveys include surveys, structured interviews, and non-participant observations, while qualitative research uses participant observations, unstructured interviews, and focus group discussions. Although interviews are used in both methods, quantitative surveys use defined or closed questions that require a 'yesno' answer. On the other hand, in qualitative research, an open question was used to allow participants to discuss their feelings in detail. However, Raja et al. It is recommended using an open questionnaire are more effective because it provides researchers with a large amount of data. In contrast, Gatton and Jones believe that a closed questionnaire is the best because it helps to control respondents, save time and reduce skills. Or digital form; these data are statistically analyzed and displayed using charts, drawing tables, tables, graphs, and tables. In contrast, the raw data in qualitative research is expressed in the text; they are analyzed and grouped into categories (codes). The analyzed data is presented in themes and sub-themes in a descriptive manner. Contrary to this view, Unite for Sight pointed out that qualitative research can also be quantified to a certain extent, for example, to classify the percentage of research participants. Both quantitative and qualitative methods use coding, but it should be noted that quantitative methods use scores and numbers for coding, while qualitative methods use topics and subtopics.
According to Brown, generalization is the extent to which survey results can be extended to the general population. The results of a quantitative study can be summarized by its objectivity and the use of a large sample size that can represent the general population, which can explain the validity (authenticity or factuality) and reliability (consistency) of the results; However, using a smaller sample size may affect the generality of quantitative research. On the contrary, the findings of qualitative research give a problematic idea and fail to tell the truth. Therefore, it cannot be generalized due to its subjectivity and the use of relatively small sample size (unrepresentable). However, William believes that the results of qualitative research can be generalized if they have four characteristics. Credibility, transferability, confirmability and reliability, and large sample size. The dissemination of the results is always the conclusion of the research process, both research methods use technologies such as the Internet, books, magazines, and social networks to disseminate the results. Improve practice and point out areas worthy of recommendation and constructive criticism.
In summary, while quantitative and qualitative research methods have their drawbacks, they also have advantages. Therefore, neither is better than the other and should be used simultaneously in nursing practice to improve effectiveness. Qualitative research provides a theoretical basis for quantitative research to conduct experiments; while qualitative research validates these theories, so they act simultaneously to improve practice. Reflectively, the writing of this article broadens the author's understanding of the importance of qualitative and quantitative research methods and how to incorporate them into nursing practice to promote professional development.
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