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In this paper I will examine,also analyze the Battle of Royale film within the perspective of realizm.Battle of Royale is Japanese made film which is released in 2000,directed by Kinji Fukasaku.The film is the combination of imagination and reality which analyze IR perspective in practice.It is true that tragedy within film resting on IR concept explain the IR hypothesis function of myth,also overall intention of it. We can see the different level of analysis such as system,state and individual level within the movie that explain the war reasons and enable us to interpret anarchic people structure and inborn actions.The movie contributes to explain the concepts and terms of realism theory in a perfect way thorough depictions of the film,which provide us to understand in a some way explaination of the realism myth ’’ anarchy is the permissive cause of war. ’’and Kennetz Walt’s realist perspective. (Weber, 2014, s. 14 -17)
In the film,some students are sent to an island in which they had to survive for three days through foods and ammunition.The provisions of island are hard to survive,but we observe that some students try to cooperate with each other so as to survive.On the other hand, in the movie, we can see numerous conflicts which can prove that people can turn into evil if not they are carefully directed.In this movie,everything,including sound effect,explain the cruelty of human nature in the absence of adult.Moreover,it gives an idea that absence of adult can lead to severe negative effect on society,also which can be the reason of destruction of a society. As we see in the movie human nature is greedy,which represent the powers in the world politics.İn the begining of the film, we see that Japon economy showed a large decline with %15 unemployment.Adults in the Japan are depressed with this desperate economic condition,also many students boycott their school administrations and crime ratio increases in a higher rates.After this bad conditions,the goverment announced an action called Battle Royal act.In this scope,when we consider the Japane conditions,we can say that country is not run in a efficient way,in other words,there is a lack of central goverment.Therefore,there is an anarhic environment that people don’t trust their goverment,which explain the individual level of analysis that is as result of bad leader who lead people to involve in criminal activities and create anarchic environment. (CLACKSON, 2011)
It is the begining of the movie that we are seeing a girl who returns from recent year battle royal after her victory,who has a ruthless smile on her face that apparently shows the bad nature of human.She might be a winner,but we consider the situation in an moral perspective within the scope of individual analysis level, we can say that although she kills a lot of innocent people,power can effectively alter the behaviour of human and change them into evil minded.Actually,it is human nature that when people keep the power their own hand,these situations are inevitable. The failure of the government to run the nation clearly means people’s innate feeling of considering somebody as a leader. Individuals are hesitant to think somebody as their leader so that they include in conflicts, which in reality clarifies the behavior of human being as anarchic.
It is the begining of the film that there are 43 individuals who play basketball happily,but which do not take long time because events turn into evil.They are traveling bus and enjoying with each other, but they find themselves surrounded with full of soldiers.We see in the film that a boy asking for whether he come back home if he kills other friends,which represent individuals’ transition from a hierarchical society to an anarchical society.
Girls living on the watchtower,who have a normal life.Nevertheless,when Nanahara comes to watchtower,Yuko is troubled with him since Nanahara kills her best friend named Oki accidentally.Yuko mixes poison to Nanahara’s food in order to kill him,but one of the girls called Yuka eats poisoned food and dies.Then,conflicts among girls starts.Satomi holds the weapon and shoots girls since Satomi considers that someone poisoned Yuka in order to kill her.End of the this conflict, apart from Yuko,all girls die. Yuko jumps from tower and dies after understanding fault of her. Actually,this scene signifies the anarchical structure, when Yuki yells “Stupid! We might have all survived, we are all so stupid. ”Since lack of leadership between them,which scene shows us the anarchic environment.
In the realism perspective ,one of the most important concept is power and increase it as much as possible.After the realizing the importance of power, friendship can also be destroyed.It is like seeing half empty of a glass of water.Mostly,Realist see the world as a tragedy and evil.Tragedy means that in the world politic there is a lack of central goverment and thus structure is anarchic and innate power of human being is evil by nature.
In the movie,we see that Nanahara’s father hungs himself owing to getting tired with life, also due to unemployed and incapable of looking after his children fully. When we consider this situation in a realistic aspect,actually it is difficult for weak people to live in the planet ,so checks out power politics which explain the Kenneth Waltz’s theory of anarch and realistic ideologies.
It is the time when Japanese economy experiences with a sharp decline,students do not attend the class.Few students show respect their teacher,especially Noriko is showing respect her teachers exclusively Kitano who is stabbed and wounded by Yoshitoki.After this events,teacher Kitano leaves their job and plans for taking revenge from middle school students.Due to Noriko’s respect to Kitano, he is compassionate toward Noriko while he is the controller in the battle royale. We can clearly say that people are innate selfish within the their nature and show no good attention to others. Also,it is true that people always look for subjective, expected benefits, even when making a logical decision.Moreover,we can say that selfishness provide war with permissive and appears that anarchy eventually cause to war and hence can be the reason behind the permissive cause of war.
After Kitano leave from school, 3-B class students go for a field trip,but they do not aware of going different place where they can not come back.It is the night when all students asleep,except Nanahara nobody realized that they are being taken to military camp.When student wake up,they see themselves in a place which surrounded with soldiers,also there are necklaces each student’ head, which is waterproof and sockproof,also can be burst with remote. Then, Kitano appears with his murderous look,who firstly kills the other teacher being loved so much by students.When students see the dead body of him,chaos environment happens,but students can not do anything even thoough some seem to go against Kitano since they are surrounded with military forces. Then, all students are being sit and being watched a video which is concerning about rules and regulations of game.At that time since one student makes a noise,Kitano slashes the knife to her forehead.After seeing this event,Nobu go against Kitano,but killed by bursting of bomb necklace in his neck.Seeing this all students understand seriousness of situation and do not dare to make any noise and carefully listen the regulations and rules of game.
When we look at the regulations and rules of game,they do not clearly motivate students for unification rather provoke discrimination within the students.This game is the indication of bad nature of human being.In a realist perspective, we can consider the island as a state which do not motivate people to cooperation and collabaration instead motivate people to include in violence.In the movie,island is a small place where the violence reaches the peak. Actually,island can be a place where there is collaboration and cooperation,but students make it cruelty and violence place. (Weber, 2014, s. 17-19)
Students are given foods and weapons for survival.Each student are given different type of weapon,so some students have natural advantages to kill others,which implies the people’s selfish interests within themselves and chiefly include in subjective expected utility although they have realistic choice paradigm. Actually, rationally within people motivate them to look for their own good instead considering the benefits of other people,which explain the realistic perspective of world.
After battle of royale starts,we see bad human nature.Everyone is trying to kill one another in order to get the best weapons possible since selfish people behaviours motivate students to obtain much more power. Actually,It can not be true that to kill somenone only for survival as a legitimate action, instead of which oncoming scenes show that transfer student Kwada find a solution for getting away from battle of royale with cooperation and mutual effort that can be the best way to overcome issues.
In the movie we see that two girls speaks from mike and waving their hand in order to unite and stop the battle.After the announcing, other student kills them. This event clearly shows the evil nature of human and hence don’t let to have good thoughs or mind to be demontrated in front of eveyone.This is the critical point in the realistic perspective of anarchy and which approves the permissive cause of war. When the other students listen the announcement of two girls to unite,it can be the higher possibilit to survive, but since people pay much more atttention of their self-view continous conflict is inevitable.
It is argued that due to structure of game killing each other can be justifiable.However,we see in the movie that with cooperation it is the possible to escape from island. One of the student who is hacker hacks into system and deactivates the necklace and trace system ,which can be the way to stop the game and escape from island. However, rather than cooperate with each other due to human evil nature they start to kill each other in order to gain power. Actually, they can come together and collaborate with each other so that they follow the hacker friend way to get out from island. (Stafford, 2013)
After the begining of the game,twelve student are dead within the first six hour,also four students suicide.Actually,discrimination in multi polor system is quite normal in a realist perspective.In the realism based on power poltics,it is quite common to consider a place in which only for strong people and hence weak peope are cleared out unrecognized as suggested and appeared within the movie.
Kriyama and Kwada are tranferred student.Kriyama is so much dangerous,also violent students,who targets achieving the victory within the game,while another tranferred student Kwada,who is winner of the recent game,is not violent as much as Kriyama,also has merciful attitutes toward Nanahara,also Noriko.Kwada collaborates and cooperates with Nanhara and Noriko in order to get away from island.Kuninobu is the Nanahara’s best friend and he fall in love with Noriko although never tell her.After Kuninobu’s death,Noriko is protected by Nanahara for the sake of Kuninobu(best friend of Nanahara).Other characters such as Chigusa is brave,also no intention to kill other.However,when one of the her friend named Niida attacks her,she fights back and kills him,but due to getting bad injured,she died after meeting with her best friend.Mitsuka is the most bravest and the most violent girls among them.She is so proactive in the battle.She is ready to do what it takes to win the battle.She even killed the her best friend to survive and succeed in the game,which signifies the evil human nature,also shows that people are profoundly intested in their own self-interest regardless of others interest.They want to gain power as much as possible,which is main argument as backed by realistic perspective.
We see that people are trying to find the best safer place and hence including in various conflicts with each other.Firstly,Kwada seeks for a place in which there are medical supplies and foods,also some students find the watch tower as to get a safer place for living.We can say that theory of territoriality is visible within the state with second level of analysis.Also,It shows that it is innate nature of goverment of the state to obtain as much territory as possible.
At the end of movie,Nanahara and Noriko are the only two people to succeed survival.However, if they were not subjectively organized by their ex-teachers, there could be other students.Indeed in spite of the fact that Kwada makes it, in any case he could not make his way off the island.However,He is so happy to help Nanahara and Noriko so as to escape from island.Although they are told only one person will win the game,but Noriko and Nanahara prove to possible way to get out from island and shows the possibility of mutual effort and collaboration among student.As there is no collobaration among students,which clearly explain the evil human nature and evilness is the main reason of conflict, which can bring about serious consequences, also might even lead to war.
Kenneth Waltz assume that anarch is the main component for the causes of conflict.However,we can not ignore the function of fear, which lead to change the behaviour of human being.Fear is the one of the most important key component in terms of the anarchic nature of human beings.In the movie,we see in the most of scenes that the function of fear,also I include some of them to show the function of fear that change the behaviour of people.
In the movie,when Nanahara see the killing of Tendo by Nakagawa,which get afraid him and lead to trying to kill Nakagava although he is shown as the most rational student in the movie.We can say that function of fear leads such a rational people to kill their friend.Anarchy is not enough to explain this situaiton,it is the fear that has potential function to change behaviour of human and causes the evil nature of human being.
Secondly,we see that a group of girls live on the top of watch tower,which signifies that the students are trying to succeed anarchy within the hierarchy.Since Nanahara is badly injured,they cooks food mainly for him.However,Yuko tries to kill Nanahara,who kills the Yuko’s best friend accidentally,by putting poison inside the food,but mistakely another girl eats the food and dies immediately.And then distrustful environment happens among them,which lead to fear and violent between them.At the end of conflict,except Yuko,who put the poison inside food,all girls die.Due to feeling guilty,Yuko throw herself from watch tower and suicides.We can say the critical key component behind the death of all girls, which is the function of fear that lead to turn into a violent battle and make a bloody battle among them.
It is true that fear is the crucial component in the myth function of realism. Fear makes it possible to change the behavior of anarchy in a society. Function of fear makes the anarchy as a ideology which is fulfilled.In the example given before,after the putting poison inside food,if there is no fear and disbelieving among girls,it can be the possible to see cooperation among them.Since there is no violence among them,they could continue to survive until the recent day of battle royale game.However,function of fear maket them involve in violence and include in bloody fight.Unless it is the function of fear, anarchy lose its meaning and hence no longer be a permissive cause of war. (Weber, 2014, s. 31-33)
1) Individual Level of Analysis;
2) State level of analysis;
3) System level of analysis;
Balance of Power;
In order to provide balance between 9th students and exchange students,who are the much more stronger when we comperad to other students, weak students come together to kill transfer students from the recent year’s battle royale.
After the poisining events among girls on the watch tower,which leads to fear and disbelieving among them.Function of fear cause to change the behaviour of students which weakens the anarchy of kenneth Waltz.Moreover,After introduction the rules and regulations of battle of royale game,which lead to fear among the students and students start to kill each other so as to survive. (Weber, 2014, s. 31-33)
Transition from Hierarchy into Anarchy;
It signifies the hierarcial environment that student plays basketball and they have a regular life,while after the student are taken to island into battlefield in which they have to survive killing each other,which symbolizes the transition to anarchical environment.
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