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Research Design as a Step of a Research Process

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Research is the scientific method of investigation. The purpose of research is to learn something and gather evidence. Research typically begins with an observation and then curiosity as to why or how an entity or system works.

Research process consists of 8 steps:

  1. Statement of a problem.
  2. Literature Review
  3. Creating hypothesis or research questions
  4. Research design
  5. Collect relevant data/Data collection
  6. Analyze and interpret the results/Data Analysis
  7. Present the results in an appropriate form (Findings/Conclusion)
  8. Replicate the study if necessary

A detailed outline about how an investigation will take place is Research Design. It includes how data is to be collected, what instrument will be employed, how the instrument will be used and the intended means for analyzing data collected.

Research design is very important for any research as it helps in making it efficient. A clear statement of the research problem, procedures and techniques that will be used for gathering information, the population and sample to be studied and methods that will be used for collecting, processing and analyzing data should be there in research design.

The research design can be segmented into the following parts:

  • The Sampling Design
  • When you collect any sort of data, especially quantitative data, whether observational, through surveys or from secondary data, you need to decide which data to collect and from whom. The sampling design may also involve a review of the sampling process. It must have minimal error. Systematic bias must be controlled. Sample study’s results should be such that it can be applied in general.

    Sample designing consists of following steps:

    1. Defining the population concern
    2. Specification of a sampling frame

    There are two types of sampling design:

    1. Probability Sampling: Probability sampling methods allow the researcher to be precise about the relationship between the sample and the population.
    2. Non-probability Sample: Using non-probability sampling methods, it is not possible to say what is the probability of any particular member of the population being sampled. Although this does not make the sample ‘bad’, researchers using such samples cannot be as confident in drawing conclusions about the whole population.
  • The Observational Design
  • This involves the how to get data. This involves the actual process of observation or getting data in a research process, to visit the field for research, to contact the person (for interview) and many more.

  • The Statistical Design
  • It involves the actual process of observation. This involves the use of different statistics for data collection, data analysis and data test.

  • The Operational Design
  • This involves the actual process of doing research. This includes aspects related to operation of that plan. E.g. Budget, Stationary etc.

Remember: This is just a sample from a fellow student.

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Research Design as a Step of a Research Process. (2018, November 19). GradesFixer. Retrieved November 30, 2021, from
“Research Design as a Step of a Research Process.” GradesFixer, 19 Nov. 2018,
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Research Design as a Step of a Research Process [Internet]. GradesFixer. 2018 Nov 19 [cited 2021 Nov 30]. Available from:
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