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German composer Ludwig van Beethoven was born on December 16, 1770, at Bonn, Germany and died on March 26, 1827, at Vienna, Austria. Beethoven is the most famous composer in the history of music. He continued to his career to composing a song even while losing his hearing and created some of his greatest works after becoming totally deaf.
In 1792, Beethoven study with famous composer Joseph Haydn (1732–1809)in veena and he back in veena. Beethoven was not totally satisfied with Haydn’s teaching though and he turned to musicians of not so great talent for extra instruction. Beethoven quickly proceeded and his dream to make himself as a brilliant keyboard performer and as a gifted young composer with a number of works to his credit. In 1795 his first career was published in the industry of music and appeared famously, and his career was officially launched.
Beethoven lived in Vienna from 1792 to his death in 1827and his status is unmarried, among his friends. He always independent of any kind of position or private service. He rarely traveled, apart from summers in the countryside. In 1796 he made a trip to northern Germany, where his schedule included a visit to the court of King Frederick William of Prussia, an as beginner cellist. Later Beethoven made several trips to Budapest, Hungary. In 1808 Beethoven received an invitation to become music director at Kassel, Germany. This caused several of his wealthy Viennese friends, who formed a group of backers and agreed to guarantee Beethoven an annual salary of 1,400 florins to keep him in Vienna. He thus became one of the first musicians in history to be able to live independently on his music salary.
Although publishers pass out Beethoven and he was an able manager of his own business affairs, he was at the mercy of the crooked publishing practices of his time. Publishers paid a fee to composers for rights to their works, but there was no system of copyrights (the exclusive right to sell and copy a published work) or royalties (profits based on public performances of the material) at the time. As each new work appeared, Beethoven sold it to one or more of the best and most reliable publishers. Beethoven’s two main personal problems, especially in later life, were his deafness and his relationship with his nephew, Karl. Beethoven began to lose his hearing during his early years in Vienna, and the condition gradually grew worse. So severe was the problem that as early as 1802 he actually considered suicide. In 1815 he gave up hope of performing publicly as a pianist. After 1818 he was no longer able to carry on conversations with visitors, who were forced to communicate with him in writing. The second problem arose when he became Karl’s guardian upon the death of his brother in 1815. Karl proved to be unstable and a continuing source of worry to an already troubled man.
Beethoven’s deafness and his temper contributed to his reputation as an unpleasant personality. But reliable accounts and a careful reading of Beethoven’s letters reveal him to be a powerful and self-conscious man, totally involved in his creative work but alert to its practical side as well, and one who is sometimes willing to change to meet current demands. For example, he wrote some works on commission, such as his cantata (a narrative poem set to music) for the Congress of Vienna, 1814.
Beethoven’s deafness affected his social life, and it must have changed his personality deeply. In any event, his development as an artist would probably have caused a crisis in his relationship to the musical and social life of the time sooner or later. In his early years he wrote as a pianist-composer for an immediate and receptive public; in his last years, he wrote for himself. Common in Beethoven biographies is the focus on Beethoven’s awareness of current events and ideas, especially his attachment to the ideals of the French Revolution (1789–99; the revolt of the French middle class to end absolute power by French kings) and his faith in the brotherhood of men, as expressed in his lifelong goal of composing a version of “Ode to Joy,” by Friedrich Schiller (1759–1805), realized at last in the Ninth Symphony. Also frequently mentioned is his genuine love of nature and outdoor life.
No one had ever heard anything like Beethoven’s last works; he or she was too advanced for audiences and even professional musicians for some time after his death in 1827. Beethoven was aware of this. It seems, however, he expected later audiences to have a greater understanding of and appreciation for them. Beethoven reportedly told a visitor who was confused by some of his later pieces, “They are not for you but for a later age.”
The Symphony No. 5 in C minor of Ludwig van Beethoven, Op. 67, was published between 1804–1808. This piece one of the famous compositions in classical music, and one of the most performed and played by symphonies.this song was performed in Vienna’s Theater an der Wien in 1808 for the first time, the work achieved its impressively great in reputation soon afterward. Hoffmann says that the symphony as “one of the most important works of the time”. The symphony consists of four movements. The first movement is Allegro con brio; the second movement is Andante con moto; the third movement is a Scherzo Allegro; the fourth movement is Allegro.
The first movement opens with the four-note motif discussed above, one of the most famous motifs in Western music.] Allegro con brio – At a fast tempo, and with spirit (literally ‘with brilliance’) or a directive to perform the indicated passage of a composition at a fast tempo with spirit.
The first movement is in the traditional sonata form that Beethoven inherited from his classical predecessors, Haydn and Mozart (in which the main ideas that are introduced in the first few pages undergo elaborate development through many keys, with a dramatic return to the opening section—the recapitulation—about three-quarters of the way through). It starts out with two dramatic fortissimo phrases, the famous motif, commanding the listener’s attention. Following the first four bars, Beethoven uses to copy and sequences to expand the theme, these pithy imitations tumbling over each other with such rhythmic regularity that they appear to form a single, flowing melody. Shortly after, a very short fortissimo bridge, played by the horns, takes place before a second theme is introduced. This second theme is in E? major, the relative major, and it is more lyrical written piano and featuring the four-note motif in the string accompaniment. The codetta is again based on the four-note motif. The development section follows, including the bridge. During the recapitulation, there is a brief solo passage for oboe in quasi-improvisatory style, and the movement ends with a massive coda.
Andante con moto means Slowly, but with motion. This direction is to tell the performer that whilst the music should be slow, it should not be so slow that things reduce to a sudden stop in the end. There should be some sense of motion in the music. The second movement, in A? major, the subdominant key of C minor’s relative key (E? major), is a lyrical work in double variation form, which means that two themes are presented and varied in alternation. Following the variations, there is a long coda.
The movement opens with an announcement of its theme, a melody in unison by violas and cellos, with accompaniment by the double basses. A second theme soon follows, with a harmony provided by clarinets, bassoons, and violins, with a triplet arpeggio in the violas and bass. This is followed up by a third theme, thirty-second notes in the violas and cellos with a counter phrase running in the flute, oboe, and bassoon. Following an interlude, the whole orchestra participates in a fortissimo, leading to a crescendo and a coda to close the movement.
Allegro scherzo noun is a piece of music or a movement from a larger piece such as a symphony, especially, a piece of music played in a playful manner. allegro now is a tempo mark directing that a passage is to be played in a quick, lively tempo, faster than allegretto but slower than presto. The third movement is in ternary form, consisting of a scherzo and trio. The opening theme is answered by a contrasting theme played by the winds, and this sequence is repeated. Then the horns loudly announce the main theme of the movement, and the music proceeds from there. The trio section is in C major and is written in a contrapuntal texture. When the scherzo returns for the final time, it is performed by the strings very quietly.
Allegro means In a quick, lively tempo, usually considered to be faster than allegretto but slower than presto. Used chiefly as a direction. The fourth movement begins without pause from the transition. The music resounds in C major. In Beethoven’s word. The triumphant and exhilarating finale is written in an unusual variant of sonata form at the end of the development section played fortissimo, and. The recapitulation introduced by a crescendo coming out of the last bars of the interpolated scherzo section, just as the same music was introduced at the opening of the movement. The interruption of the finale with material from the third “dance” movement was pioneered by Haydn, who had done the same in his Symphony No. 46 in B, from 1772.
Sonata form (also sonata-allegro form or first movement form) is a musical structure consisting of three main sections, an exposition, a development, and a recapitulation. n this work, Beethoven used sonata-allegro form, which was the most common first-movement form in symphonies at that time. Sonata-allegro form begins with the exposition (where you get to hear contrasting themes). Listen to the fiery first theme in a minor key [Beethoven, Symphony No. 5, I: 0:00–0:18] and how it is different from the quieter and smoother second theme in a major key [Beethoven, Symphony No. 5, I: 0:46–1:06]. The exposition ends with a closing theme that sounds like this [Beethoven, Symphony No. 5, I: 1:07–1:26]
After the exposition repeats, you’ll hear the development where the themes from the exposition are heard in different ways. Listen for the first theme introduced by the horns and then played by a variety of instruments in ascending and descending motion: [Beethoven, Symphony No. 5, I: 2:54–3:25]
The third section of the sonata-allegro form is the recapitulation, in which the themes from the exposition return in the home key. Here’s the fiery first theme from the exposition [Beethoven, Symphony No. 5, I: 0:00–0:18]. Listen to how it is played more deliberately and with an added oboe part when it returns in the recapitulation: [Beethoven, Symphony No. 5, I: 4:17–4:37]. Now, here’s the second theme from the exposition [Beethoven, Symphony No. 5, I: 0:46–1:06]. Listen to how the second theme sounds at lower pitch levels in the recapitulation [Beethoven, Symphony No. 5, I: 5:15–5:40]. The closing theme also returns in a different key: listen to the closing theme from the exposition: [Beethoven, Symphony No. 5, I: 1:07–1:26]; now listen to the closing theme from the recapitulation: [Beethoven, Symphony No. 5, I: 5:41–5:58]. Sonata-allegro form often ends with a coda or a section of music that extends beyond what you originally heard in the exposition. Listen to the beginning of the coda, which returns to the minor key: [Beethoven, Symphony No. 5, I: 5:58–6:41]
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