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Research of Mesopotamian and Egyptian Civilizations and The Main Differences Between Them

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According to the dictionary Petit Robert (1991), a civilization, comparable to advancement, evolution, progress, refers first of all to the whole of the characters common to large corporations more advanced, to all acquisitions of human societies in opposition to the terms of nature or barbarism. On its side, the Act to civilize returns to pass a community to a social state more evolved (in the moral order, intellectual, artistic, technical) or considered as such. In a more neutral, the Civilization includes the whole of social phenomena (religious, moral, aesthetic, scientific, technical) common to a large corporation or to a group of companies. As well we have a civilization which has seen the light of day in the Nile valley and Mesopotamia.

The Nile Valley

For centuries, the Nile River flooded the valley, enriching the land with a thick layer of alluvial soil. Flooding occurred from July to September, the result of the tropical rains on the highlands of Ethiopia. The river reached its maximum level in October, then began to decrease, is at its minimum between April and June.

As it rains rarely in Egypt, the floods provided the only source of moisture for crops. Irrigation canals were used to control the water, particularly in times of drought. The principal crops cultivated during the Pharaonic era were barley, emmer (a coarse wheat), lentils, beans, cucumbers, leeks, onions, dates, figs, and grapes. The abundance of flowers provided nectar for the bees to produce honey, which the Egyptians processed. Flax was grown to make the canvas, and we harvested the papyrus, that was of the paper, ropes, mats, sandals and light watercraft.

It was the breeding of various domestic animals: cattle, oxen, sheep, goats, pigs, ducks and geese, among others. The donkey and the horse arrived from Asia to 1600 av. J.-C. and the camel were introduced much later. At the time of the early pharaohs, the camel was unknown.

The Nile was the great way that linked the various parts of the country. Up until the nineteenth century, travel by land was virtually unknown. As there are no forests in Egypt, the wood was imported from Lebanon. Acacia wood was used in Lower Nubia to build the ships that transported granite used in the building of the pyramids. The felucca, a small sailing vessel non-bridged, was the means of transportation of people and goods the more current on the Nile.

The valley of the Nile is truly a blessing for Egypt. Without its waters and its fertile land, the Egyptian civilization would not have emerged.


During the amazing growth of Neolithic, which, among other discoveries, sees the implementation of agriculture and livestock, the Mesopotamia only plays a role that very late; also, in the whole of a Middle East gloss and rich in its successive discoveries, fact-IT long figure of poor parent because, during this first period, techniques acquired did to obtain results in an alluvial plain of a great fertility only on condition that the water was domesticated and not more unevenly distributed in time and space.

When the man had disciplined the water thanks to channels, the valley of the two rivers then became a region of prosperity. The existence of great spaces, to the agricultural possibilities conditioned only by hydraulic structures, completely alters the conditions of production and led the human communities in new ways that lead to the birth of an organization of the country in Cités-Etat and on the invention of the writing. However, this prosperity is based on a basic only agricultural, and the most ancient human groups installed in the plain could not survive that thanks to the external relations, sometimes very distant, in order to obtain the necessary firewood to the habitat and the boats and furniture, the stones for the tooling and the armament, finally, with the age of the metals, copper and tin, indispensable to all the instruments of bronze, which gradually, replace the lithic tools and give to the one who is provided a power much greater.

However, a commercial network, some developed as it has been, could not provide the inhabitants of Mesopotamia everything that they lacked; also their ingenuity OTC-it’s exercise to draw only the resources of the country the objects the most varied, absolutely necessary to everyday life: the clay, flood and mixed with the chopped straw or molded in the shape of a brick, became the raw material of the architecture; purified and in the form of Tablet, it served to support the writing; tour and cooked, it served to make, as elsewhere, containers various, in current use. It may without exaggeration No, say that everyday life is mold in Mesopotamia in the clay.

The growth of the Mesopotamia is thus based on the richness is alluvial soil and on the quasi-absence of any other raw material. One can never say enough the extraordinary power of invention of Mesopotamian populations, which, faced in full Neolithic to the critical problems of survival, have been able to lay the economic, social and cultural bases of the communities who have dominated and radiated from the Mesopotamia on all the East and the Mediterranean basin.

Egypt and Mesopotamia, these two civilizations have emerged together and shared a number of aspects, including religious. Yet, each is quite distinct from the other, we discuss below, some points where are these differences.

Out first, the geographic orientation of each differs. Ancient Egypt is organized around the banks of the River Nile. While the Mesopotamia is located between the two rivers, the Tigris and the Euphrates, a situation to which it must, moreover, its name. While the Egyptian civilization is concentrated on the Nile and its many benefits, the Mesopotamian civilization is extended on a large part of Iraq and suffers more rivers and floods.

The political organization of the two civilizations constitutes a major difference. The Mesopotamia is characterized as a collection of separate states while ancient Egypt is known to be a state well-structured and unified under the power of its pharaohs.

There is also a difference in the literary traditions. Indeed, Egypt would have been able to adopt the alphabet cuneiform Mesopotamians but has preferred to attaching to create his own, based on the hieroglyphics. The Mesopotamia as to It is distinguished by the richness of the literary contents product.


Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia have based their economy on agriculture. This tedious work required of the means more productive at work, I hope thanks to technological progress. The two companies have used the process of irrigation by canals and dikes. Stone tools were most commonly used as well as some of the bronze. Egypt skillfully used simple machines such as levers and pulleys to build magnificent monuments. Mesopotamian pottery ease took with the creation of the wheel, the potter. The most important innovation was the writing of distinct structures of the two civilizations. The Mesopotamians preferred the method of the wedge-shaped by the creation of symbols in the shape of a corner with reeds. Fortunately for the discovery of the Rosetta Stone, we can interpret the multitude of hieroglyphics of ancient Egypt.

Despite the insulation, the two civilizations have managed to comply with the basic structure of the human nature and apply the indicators of a civilization. Where the specific qualities that make up the classes of Mesopotamians and old Egyptians.

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