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Research Report on Drought in Australia

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Abstract

This Research report is based on the major problem facing by Australian people and mainly farmers and their communities. Many farmers and local communities have been facing severe and prolonged drought. Australia has always had variation in the climate. As the near future, many professional and experts has predicted more high temperature and low rainfall all over the Australia. As this report is made by the secondary method, we have collected various data which can show you the situation of past, current and future impact by the drought. According to the Bureau of Meteorology issued in June 2018 shows that rainfall across Australia is third-lowest on record since 1900. Many places in New South Wales suffered from the lowest May rainfall for at least 20 years. To recover from the drought, people should be more focused on the conservation of natural resources as well as conservation of the water resources. Australian government should start planning about the new alternative planning for the recovery of drought.

Introduction

Drought is a natural disaster which can have devastating social and economic impact on mainly farmers and their communities, as well as adverse effect on the environment. Annual dry seasons in the tropics significantly increase the chance of having drought in that region. The increase in temperature in the climate makes the drought worst as the result bush fire and more water evaporates which leads to economic damage, environmental damage and effect in the ecosystem.

Drought is defined as “a prolonged, abnormally dry period when the amount of available water is insufficient to meet our normal use”. Meteorologists monitor the length and intensity of drought in terms of rainfall deficiencies. A rainfall deficit occurs when an area’s total rainfall over a period is less than the average for that period.

Method

The method I have used in this research report is from various secondary sources, in particularly official government website articles and reports, news articles, magazines articles. The main articles used in this research report is “Climate Change and Drought June 2018” and “Government Drought Support”.

Case Study

1. Historical Background

During the time of 20th and early 21st centuries, Australia has suffered from several major drought. There had been several years of below average rainfall across most of Australia before the drought. The most severe droughts were the Federation drought, where the wheat crop was “all but lost”; and the Darling River was dry at Bourke, New South Wales, for over a year, from April 1902 to May 1903, the world war II drought from 1939 to 1945 and the millennium drought in the south- eastern Australia from 1996 to 2010.

Over the past 30 years, rainfall in cool season in the Western Australia and South-eastern Australia has shown the rapid decrease compared to natural variability as South-eastern Australia has been suffered from 15 percent to 25 percent decline in the average rainfall since 1970s. Since 1970s Western Australia also experienced a decline in average rainfall in cool season by 15 percentage. This led to 60 percent decrease in the flow of the stream of Western Australia and Murray–Darling Basin.

2. Current State

As the Southern Australia was the second lowest in the rainfall based on the all the data since 1900. In New South Wales, 16.5 percent of the state was declared drought affected by 7th June 2018, 46.6 percent was drought onset and 36.3 percent was drought in watch. The latest drought condition update of New South Wales can be found be found here: edis.dpi.nsw.gov.au

According to the Bureau of Meteorology issued in June 2018 shows that rainfall across Australia is third-lowest on record since 1900. Many places in New South Wales suffered from the lowest May rainfall for at least 20 years.

3. Future Consequences

Future projection of drought is also difficult to predict, as they as different across Australia and depends upon the records of the drought which is measured. The continue decline in rainfall over southern Australia can be projected as in winter and spring. All the river flows will be decrease in many parts of the country which may lead to the crisis in water supply over main cities and can have double effect in the ecosystem and agriculture.

The industrialization, urbanization and greenhouse gas can be the main cause of the increasing temperature and decline of the rainfall as it is the main cause of global warming which may reach 50 percent more in reduction in rainfall in South Australia by 2030.

Conclusion

Drought has become a huge concern for Australian government as well as to their people as there has been a rise in the decline of rainfall. As the more rise in industries, nuclear power plant, urbanization and greenhouse gas so on, the increase in climate change can be seen every year as per to the record.

In order to recover from the increasing temperature, afforestation campaign should be planned in various places. Deforestation, greenhouse gas and increase in industrialization has become a threat as the climate change is increasing every year and the drought is getting more worst and heavy for the local communities and farmers. Lack of balance with nature has led us with the various natural disasters.

At last I just want to conclude that people should be more focused on the conservation of natural resources as well as conservation of the water resources.

People should be more concern about the greenhouse effect and the uses of more chemical and toxic substances. More afforestation campaign should be created.

Recommendations

Drought is a natural disaster from which people can be secure with the help of proper planning and the management. The recommendation is as follows:

  1. Australian Government should increase water conservation plan as well as provide awareness of water misuses.
  2. Australian government should give more facilities like proper transportation, water supply, agricultural equipment and financial support to the farmers of the various state.
  3. Government as well as the people of Australia should give more priority to the nature conservation by using less plastic, less industrial goods and increasing more trees
  4. Create a new form of water conservation as well as using less greenhouse gas.
  5. Replacing fossil fuel energy to electric energy.

 

References

  • BoM (Bureau of Meteorology) (2018a) Drought Update 4 June 2018. Viewed 30 January 2019, http://www.bom.gov.au/climate/drought/#tabs=About-drought
  • CSIRO and BoM (2015) Climate change in Australia: Projections for Australia’s NRM regions. Viewed 30 January 2019, Technical Report, https://www.climatechangeinaustralia.gov.au/media/ccia/2.1.6/cms_page_media/168/CCIA_2015_NRM_TechnicalReport_WEB.pdf
  • Freund M, Henley BJ, Karoly DJ, Allen KJ, and Baker, P J (2017) Multi-century cool- and warm-season rainfall reconstructions for Australia’s major climatic regions, Climate of the Past, 13, 1751-1770, viewed 30 January 2019, https://www.clim-past.net/13/1751/2017/

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Research Report On Drought In Australia. (2021, Jun 09). GradesFixer. Retrieved September 27, 2021, from https://gradesfixer.com/free-essay-examples/research-report-on-drought-in-australia/
“Research Report On Drought In Australia.” GradesFixer, 09 Jun. 2021, gradesfixer.com/free-essay-examples/research-report-on-drought-in-australia/
Research Report On Drought In Australia. [online]. Available at: <https://gradesfixer.com/free-essay-examples/research-report-on-drought-in-australia/> [Accessed 27 Sept. 2021].
Research Report On Drought In Australia [Internet]. GradesFixer. 2021 Jun 09 [cited 2021 Sept 27]. Available from: https://gradesfixer.com/free-essay-examples/research-report-on-drought-in-australia/
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