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With over one billion vehicles on the planet, the carbon dioxide emissions are rising. In the age of information, each and everyone is aware of the risks associated with vehicular pollution. In the past decade, there has been a boost in the consciousness of the dangers of pollution and a simultaneous development of technology. This aided in the evolution of the concept of electric vehicles.
Over the years global leaders in the technology sector have invested and facilitated the development of electric vehicles. This concept of electric vehicles has become a reality all through the length of the world. Despite not having a wide adaptation of electric vehicles worldwide, evidence of a gradual shift exists. In India, it is an entirely different situation, the people have not quite welcomed electric vehicles merely as a concept. The reasons for this could be many and could vary from people to people and company to company. Out of the many, one of the major reason for EVs not being accepted in India could be with respect to the batteries used in the vehicles.
The crucial concerns in relation to the batteries would include battery disposal, manufacturing of batteries in India, charging stations, time of charge, the cost versus the distance traveled, the life of the battery and its disposal etc. The study following this will include the factors influencing all the mentioned concerns and will finally evaluate how there is a possibility of EVs becoming a success story in India. Currently, the transport sector is one of the major contributors of CO2 emission and as per 2012–13 data; the transport sector is responsible for 14% of India’s energy-related CO2 emissions. An assessment carried out by Central Pollution Control Board surveyed that 75% cities are at very high risk of PM10 levels. Out of these, 50% of cities have a critical level of NOx as well. Road transport, which is the main mode of transportation in India, has experienced increased activities in terms of increase in the number of vehicles. This is because as household income increases, the need to use an improved form of mobility also increases and households tend to move from nonmotorized to a motorized form of mobility. Background Study: (i) The development of EVsNot many people are aware of the fact that the first EVs were developed in America in the early 1900s by Studebaker Automobile Company. These EVs were not successful due to the availability of alternatives which were Ford’s cars that were mass produced due to their developed assembly and as a result turned out to be cheaper. By the 20th century, electric trains gained popularity as a result of better economies and achievement of faster speeds. In 1990, General Motors released their EV The current market for EVs is very small in India. Though there are different types ofE2Ws (scooters and bikes), E4Ws (electric cars), and electric buses, the overall share of EVs is negligible (National Electricity Mobility Mission Plan 2020, 2012). There are few market players (companies) in the EV sector in India. In the two-wheeler segment, Hero cycles, Electrotherm India, TVS Motor, and Hero Electric are manufacturing and selling electric two-wheelers. These electric two-wheelers are usually charged at the domestic supply voltage and, therefore, require no special adapter for charging the batteries.
Normally, motors and other electrical kits for these vehicles are imported from China and other countries, whereas mechanical design and assembly of these bikes/two-wheelers are done here. In spite of a number of players selling these two-wheelers, the market share of these EVs is not large, primarily because of the high cost of the vehicle. However, recently, the offtake of these vehicles has picked up on account of subsidy scheme launched by the Government of India and concessions given by some state governments (national electricity Mobility Mission Plan 2020, 2012). In case of electric three-wheeler segment, there are few established automobile manufacturers. The first electric three-wheeler (Vikram SAFA) was developed by Scooters India Ltd., Lucknow in 1996, and approximately 400 vehicles were made and sold. These vehicles ran on a 72 V lead-acid battery system. The model was discontinued due to very less market demand. (ii) initiatives all around the world – manufacturers, government policies first mass-produced electric vehicles appeared in America in the early 1900s. In 1902, “Studebaker Automobile Company” entered the automotive business with electric vehicles though it also entered the gasoline vehicles market in 1904. However, with the advent of cheap assembly line cars by Ford, electric cars fell to the wayside due to the limitations of storage batteries at that time, electric cars did not gain much popularity, however, electric trains gained immense popularity due to their economies and fast speeds achievable. By the 20th century, electric rail transport became commonplace. In January 1990, General Motors’ President introduced its EV concept two-seater, the “Impact”, at the Los Angeles Auto Show. That September, the California Air Resources Board mandated major-automaker sales of EVs, in phases starting in 1998.
From 1996 to 1998 GM produced 1117 EV1s, 800 of which were made available through three-year leases.Chrysler, Ford, GM, Honda, Nissan, and Toyota also produced limited numbers of EVs for California drivers. In 2003, upon the expiration of GM’s EV1 leases, GM discontinued them. The discontinuation has variously been attributed to: the auto industry’s successful federal court challenge to California’s zero-emissions vehicle mandate, a federal regulation requiring GM to produce and maintain spare parts for the few thousands EV1s and the success of the oil and auto industries’ media campaign to reduce public acceptance of EVs. General Motors EV1 electric car (1996-1998), a story told in the movie Who Killed the Electric Car? A movie made on the subject in 2005-2006 has titled Who Killed the Electric Car? and released theatrically by Sony Pictures Classics in 2006. The film explores the roles of automobile manufacturers, oil industry, the U.S. government, batteries, hydrogen vehicles, and consumers, and each of their roles in limiting the deployment and adoption of this technology. Ford released a number of their Ford Ecostar delivery vans into the market. Honda, Nissan, and Toyota also repossessed and crushed most of their EVs, which, like the GM EV1s, had been available only by closed-end lease. After public protests, Toyota sold 200 of its RAV EVs to eager buyers; they later sold at over their original forty-thousand-dollar price.
This lesson did not go unlearned; BMW of Canada sold off a number of Mini EV’s when their Canadian testing ended. Initiatives and Policies by Indian government since the past few years, the Government of India has been supporting electric mobility efforts. In Mar. 2016, Piyush Goyal, the Minister for Power, Coal, New and Renewable Energy stated his goal to make India 100% EV nation by 2030. He announced this at the conference of young Indian, organized by Confederation of Indian Industry. He added that government is making a scheme under which people will get electric cars for zero down payments and has to repay over a period of time from the savings made from fuel (PTI, 2016). This is part of the Narendra Modi government’s vision to helm a renewable-energy revolution in the country. It reckons that the automobile sector’s massive conversion will cut its oil bill by some $60 billion, reduce emissions by 37%, and curb the burgeoning demand for road infrastructure over the next 13 years. Recently, India’s road transport minister Nitin Gadkari quite bluntly made the government’s intentions clear. “We should move towards alternative fuel…I am going to do this, whether you like it or not,” Gadkari told India’s automobile lobby group, SIAM, on Sept. 07. “And I am not going to ask you. I will bulldoze it.” (iii) the the the journey of events in India Problem StatementThe Purpose of Study: The purpose of the study is to analyze the role of batteries in EVs.
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